Art and Craft Safety Guide


U. S. Consumer Product Safety Commission 4330 East West Highway

Bethesda, MD 20814

Pub. No. 5015

 

In partnership with

The Art & Creative Materials Institute (ACMI) Arts, Crafts & Theater Safety, Inc. (ACTS)

The National Art Education Association (NAEA)

 

Table of Contents

How to Use This Guide……………………………………………………………………………………………… 3

Regulation of Art Materials……………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

Sources of Health and Hazard Information………………………………………………………………….. 3

Section I Children’s Arts and Crafts……………………………………………………. 5

Guidelines for Selecting Art and Craft Materials for Children…………………………………. 5

Safety Rules to Be Followed When Children Are Using Art Materials……………………… 5

Section II General Hazards Associated with Art and Craft Materials…….. 6

Types of Hazards………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6

General Precautions: Storage, Housekeeping, Protective Gear, and Safety Rules……….. 6

General Safety and Hygiene Rules………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6

Fire Safety…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7

Storage and Precautions for Chemical Hazards…………………………………………………………………………….. 7

Disposal Precautions for Chemical Hazards………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

Protective Equipment……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8

General First Aid………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10

Summary of Ways to Minimize Risks…………………………………………………………………. 10

References………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10

Section III Hazards Associated with Specific Art and Craft Materials…. 11

Ceramics and Clay…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11

Computers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12

Drawing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12

Gems (Lapidary) and Stones………………………………………………………………………………. 13

Glass………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13

Glues/Adhesives……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14

Leather and Other Animal Products…………………………………………………………………….. 14

Metals………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 15

Painting……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17

Paper and Canvases……………………………………………………………………………………………. 19

Photographic Materials………………………………………………………………………………………. 19

Plastic………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20

Printmaking………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22

Sculpture………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25

Solvents……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 25

Textiles…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26

Waxes………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 27

Woodworking……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 27

References………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 28

Glossary…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29

Index………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30

 

How to Use This Guide

 

This guide contains three sections. Section I is a general guide for the use of art and craft supplies with children. Section II is an overview of the potential hazards associated with art and craft materials and provides applicable safety and first-aid information. Section III has more detailed information about specific art and craft disciplines and associated materials. A glossary at the end of this guide provides definitions of terms. Anyone using art or craft materials will find this information beneficial; however, note that local, state, and  federal agencies, such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) may require procedures that are more stringent for paid employees than for hobbyists. Whenever possible, this guide directs professionals to other sources of information about requirements that may supersede the recommendations presented here.

 

Regulation of Art Materials

 

The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is an independent regulatory agency charged with protecting the public from unreasonable risks of injury or death associated with consumer products. The CPSC requires labeling of art materials that have the potential to cause adverse chronic health effects under the Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA). Specifically, an amendment to the FHSA, the Labeling of Hazardous Art Materials Act (Public Law 100- 695) or “LHAMA” made mandatory many of the requirements of the labeling of art materials as set forth in the ASTM International (ASTM) standard designated D-4236-88 [U.S.C. 1277]. ASTM D-4236 outlines procedures for developing precautionary labels for art materials that have the potential to produce chronic adverse health effects [16 CFR § 1500.14(b)(8)(i)].

 

Under the FHSA, an art material is defined as “any substance marketed or represented by the producer or repackager as suitable for use in any phase of the creation of any work of visual or graphic art of any medium” [U.S.C. 1277(b)(1)]. Children’s products that meet this definition include, but are not limited to, crayons, chalk, paint sets, colored pencils, and modeling clay. It is recommended that parents/guardians purchase only those products labeled with the statement “Conforms to ASTM D-4236” (CPSC Document #5016) and that do not have any cautionary warnings on the label.

 

Moreover, under the FHSA, most children’s products that contain a hazardous substance are banned, whether the hazard is based on chronic toxicity, acute toxicity, flammability, or other hazard identified in the statute. However, the Commission may exempt art materials satisfying all three of the following criteria: (1) the inclusion of the hazardous substance is required for their functional purpose, (2) the products are labeled with adequate directions and warnings for safe use, and (3) they are intended for use by children who are sufficiently mature, and may reasonably be expected, to read and heed such directions and warnings (15 USC 1261(q)(1)(A)).

For more information on the requirements for art materials, contact the CPSC Office of Compliance, Washington, DC 20207, telephone: 301-504-7913.

 

Sources of Health and Hazard Information

 

Under the U.S. Occupational Safety  and  Health Administration (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard (HCS), chemical manufacturers are required to develop a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for each hazardous chemical they produce and import [29 CFR 1910.1200 (g)]. The MSDS contains a variety of information including the hazards associated with the chemical(s) and precautionary information for safe handling and use. However, the chronic hazards described in the MSDS may not be applicable to the casual user, such as someone engaging in an art activity one time. Be aware that a MSDS can become outdated as new information becomes available, particularly concerning long- term or chronic exposures. Manufacturers must provide the date of preparation or the date of the last change made to the MSDS, so be sure that you have the most current document available.

 

According to OSHA requirements, employers of people working with chemicals must provide an MSDS for the materials used, training in federal and local regulations governing the use and disposal of materials and waste, the proper protective equipment, and other precautions. More information about OSHA regulations and mechanisms for employees to report unsafe practices can be found at  www.osha.gov.

 

Disposal practices are required to follow the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), which tightly governs all garbage and industrial waste. More information is available online (www.epa.gov/rcraonline/)

 

Many sources for health and hazard information are available on the web including the National Library of Medicine website (http://www.nlm.nih.gov) which has links to sites such as Toxnet and Toxtown, the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS, www.epa.gov/iris/), the National Toxicology Program (NTP, http://www.niehs.nih.gov), and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, http://www.iarc.fr).

 

For example, as part of the World Health Organization, IARC performs epidemiologic and laboratory research on how humans develop cancer. IARC prepares  individual monographs for many agents that include information on exposure, chemistry, production, and use. Based on available data, IARC categorizes the carcinogenic  risks  to  humans. The list of these categories is found in the glossary.

 

Another information source is the Art and Creative Materials Institute (ACMI) (http://www.acminet.org), an international, non- profit association of over 200 art and craft material manufacturers. ACMI sponsors a certification program that identifies products that they determine to be non-toxic and those that require health warning labels.

 

Mention of the name of any company or product does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). In addition, citations to Web sites do not constitute CPSC endorsements of the sponsoring organizations or their programs or products. Furthermore, CPSC is not responsible for the content of these Web sites.

 

Section I

Children’s Arts and Crafts

This section gives an overview of the hazards associated with the use of art and craft materials by children and provides guidelines for the selection of materials as well as safety rules that should be followed.

 

Non-toxic art and craft supplies intended for children are readily available. Read the labels and only purchase art and craft materials intended for children.

 

For certain chemicals and exposure situations, children may be especially susceptible to the risk of injury. For example, since children are smaller than adults, children’s exposures to the same amount of a chemical may result in more severe effects. Further, children’s developing bodies, including their brains, nervous systems, and lungs may make them more susceptible than adults. Differences in metabolism may also affect children’s responses to some chemicals.

 

Children‘s behaviors and cognitive abilities may also influence their risk. For example, children under the age of 12 are less able to remember and follow complex steps for safety procedures, and are more impulsive, making them more likely to ignore safety precautions. Children have a much higher chance of toxic exposure than adults because they are unaware of the dangers, not as concerned with cleanliness and safety precautions as adults, and are often more curious and attracted to novel smells, sights, or sounds. Also note that children do not have to be using the art and craft materials themselves to be affected by them: careless child or adult artists can accidentally expose other children to hazards.

 

Good health and safety habits can be formed at any point in life, including childhood. Adults should model safety procedures, the use of appropriate safety gear, and careful reading of labels and cautionary statements. Children need regular and consistent reminders of safety rules, and there is no substitute for direct supervision.

 

Guidelines for Selecting Art and Craft Materials for Children

 

Up to 12 years of age (Pre-kindergarten through Grade 6):

 

  • Note that even products labeled ‘non-toxic’ when used in an unintended manner can have harmful effects.
  • Products with cautionary/warning labels should not be used with children pre-kindergarten through grade 6 (see Section II for information about specific materials).
  • Avoid solvents and solvent-based supplies, which include turpentine, paint thinner, shellac, toluene, and some glues, inks, and a few solvent-containing permanent
  • Avoid materials in self-pressurized
  • Avoid acids, alkalis, bleaches, or
  • Avoid products or processes that produce airborne dusts which can be
  • Avoid old supplies, unlabeled supplies, and be wary of donated supplies with cautionary/warning labels and that do not contain the statement “Conforms to ASTM D- ”
  • Avoid materials with lead, cadmium and other heavy
  • Avoid high-temperature hot glue guns; use low- temperature models.
  • Look for products that are clearly labeled with information about intended uses.
  • Give special attention to students with higher exposure risks, such as:
    • Physical or mental challenges, which affect safe use of the
    • Visual or hearing difficulties that may hinder the recognition of spills or skin exposures and may require the student to get close to supplies during use which can increase their inhalation of fumes or
    • Asthma or allergies, which may elevate the students’ sensitivities to fumes, dusts, or products that come into contact with the skin.

 

Safety Rules to Be Followed When Children Are Using Art Materials

 

  • Store surplus materials away from
  • Keep food and drinks out of the art
  • Give only small amounts to minimize spills and
  • Supervise children closely to prevent unintended uses of art
  • Adults should mix powdered and extremely dusty
  • Wash hands after using Do not use solvents to clean skin.
  • Watch for unusual reactions to
  • Cover cuts and sores with bandages before using
  • Contact the National Poison Control Center Hotline, 1- 800-222-1222, or the nearest certified Poison Control Center, if necessary (see General First Aid).

 

Section II

General Hazards Associated with Art and Craft Materials

This section is a brief guide on the potential hazards of art and craft materials and general precautions to take when using them. Artists, teachers, and hobbyists may find this information useful. More detailed information is available in Section III and in the references at the end of this guide. Please consult the glossary for any terms that may be unfamiliar. Specific technical information on chemicals or other substances can be found on various websites (see Health and Hazard Information).

 

It is important to recognize that while some art and craft materials may cause adverse health effects, the concentrations and exposure times required to produce them may be uncertain, particularly concerning chronic (long-term) exposures. For example, an acute (short-term) exposure to a strong acid may cause severe burns within minutes. It may take years of exposure to a certain concentration, however, for a known human carcinogen to cause cancer, and the exposure time and concentration required may vary  between individuals. Being cautious and limiting exposure to potentially harmful art and craft materials will likely minimize, if not prevent, the possibility of developing adverse health effects in the long term.

 

Types of Hazards

 

Mechanical Hazards: Strains, Breaks, Cuts,  Crush  Injuries, and Burns

 

  • Mechanical hazards are those involving damage to body tissue from objects, heat or electrical Virtually any object can damage the human body. The most common injuries include cuts, scrapes, crush injuries, and burns.
  • Such injuries can be caused by distractions, using a tool for an inappropriate function, improper handling, modification of a tool, using a tool that is worn out or functioning improperly, or using a tool that is not appropriate for the age of the Dull, worn, partially broken, or repaired tools can behave in unexpected ways and often require more effort to get the job done, placing a user at risk.

 

Chemical Hazards: Inhalation, Skin Absorption, and Ingestion

 

  • Chemical exposures can occur through breathing fumes and vapors, absorption through the skin, or by For instance, painters may ‘point’ their brushes by placing them in their mouth; children may taste art supplies or chew on drawing implements; and artists and family members may be exposed to vapors from a home studio that has inadequate ventilation, including those studios that may be located away from living areas, such as in a basement. Such conditions may seem like small exposures, but over time, many small

exposures to some chemicals may combine to damage one’s health. Use “non-toxic” products (i.e., those that are not considered to be harmful under normal use conditions) when possible. Introduce good safety practices even with the use of non-toxic products. This will help reduce exposures when hazardous materials are used.

  • When gauging exposure, consider the 1) toxicity of the substance; 2) length of exposure; 3) total body burden on the user; 4) susceptibility of the user; and 5) combined effects of interacting Chronic or repeated exposures to chemicals or short exposures to high doses of chemicals allow the body less time to detoxify and excrete the substances that have been absorbed. The total body burden refers to the amount of a substance that the body has already absorbed from other sources or over time from previous exposures. Using many different hazardous materials or using them for a long time will require careful monitoring. Consult your physician for proper care. Susceptibility to toxic materials varies with the physical characteristics of the person exposed, such as size, age, health, and medical history. Known medical conditions, such as asthma, may make someone more susceptible to the effects of certain chemicals. Combining chemicals can also have synergistic health effects (i.e., one chemical may amplify the negative effects of another).

 

General   Precautions:   Storage,   Housekeeping, Protective Gear, and Safety Rules

 

Set up studios so that users can easily comply with the safety rules. Enforce compliance with rules.

 

General Safety and Hygiene Rules

 

Work intelligently.

  • Substitute safer materials when possible.
    • Choose  water-based   products   over   solvent-based
    • Choose products that do not create dusts and mists.
  • Never hold brushes or tools in your mouth, tip brushes with your lips,
  • Never eat, drink, or smoke in
  • Store tools properly; keep them in good
  • Read the labels on your You cannot tell the toxicity of materials by the absence or presence of a particular smell.
  • Never use  materials  in  unintended  ways  (for  example, don’t use standard paint for skin-painting).

 

Keep studio space neat and orderly.

  • Keep floors clean and free of slippery
  • Keep extension cords, hoses and other tripping hazards off the floor when unused; keep traffic ways
  • Minimize the  area  in  which  hazardous  substances  are
  • Keep art  studios  separate  from  living  areas  and  clean yourself before entering living

 

Ensure appropriate ventilation.

  • The mouth, nose, and skin can absorb hazardous Ensure ventilation provides fresh air activity (see The Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality http://www.cpsc.gov/cpscpub/pubs/450.html ) to decrease exposures to dusts, fumes, gases, mists, and vapors. Adequate ventilation means that clean air is flowing toward the artist and contaminated air is flowing away. Blowing air around with a fan without a source of clean air is not adequate ventilation, and can actually increase exposures to harmful substances.
  • Prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors or spray mists to limit fire hazards with proper

 

Have proper protective gear and cleaning supplies available.

  • Wear special work clothes and keep separate from other clothing, even during clothes washing.
  • Keep cleaning supplies
  • Clean up spills immediately, even small spills, and dispose of waste chemical and cleanup materials
  • Contain flammable spills with activated charcoal, diatomaceous earth, or deodorant-free cat Workplace employees must follow the EPA’s Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and any other applicable local regulations for spill control, containment, and disposal.
  • In the event of an accidental exposure call the National Poison Control Center Hotline, 1-800-222-1222, or the number for the nearest certified Poison Control Center.

 

Wash hands and other exposed body parts after working, and before eating or using the bathroom.

  • Avoid using toluene, turpentine, kerosene, or other solvents to clean your
  • Use soap and water or baby oil or a skin
  • Wash under Keep nails trim and do not bite nails.

 

Maintain your health and fitness.

  • Recognize your physical, emotional, and mental
    • Alertness decreases with hunger and fatigue.
    • Anger, sadness,  hurrying  and  frustration  increase chances of accidents and
  • Have regular health check-ups.
  • Make sure your health care provider is familiar with the art and craft materials you use, your level of exposure, and your studio

 

Fire Safety

 

Have fire protection devices, extinguishers, and alarms.

  • Ensure alarms and extinguishers are in working order and approved for the materials and chemicals used and
  • Ensure users know fire evacuation plans for your
  • Post fire safety information in clearly visible places.

 

Work with small amounts of materials.

  • Purchase and store the smallest amounts of flammable or

combustible materials needed.

  • Never store large amounts of flammable or combustible
  • Dispense small amounts of flammable or combustible

 

Keep heat sources and ignition sources away from flammable materials.

  • Never smoke in a studio that has flammable or combustible
  • To avoid spark hazard, ensure that all electrical equipment is in good repair.
  • Fans in local exhaust systems require non-sparking or nonferrous blades and the motor should be explosion proof or outside the vapor pathway.
  • Avoid using space

 

Store flammable materials safely.

  • Store flammable or combustible solvents in fire safety cans in an OSHA-approved fireproof Keep cabinet closed and vented if required by local codes.
  • Linseed oil or solvent-soaked rags can spontaneously combust, so rags should be stored in a covered container that does not allow air in or vapors out, such as an OSHA- approved
  • Store flammable or combustible materials away from escape
  • Clean spills immediately and properly.
  • Keep a dry chemical or carbon dioxide fire extinguisher within easy

 

Storage and Precautions for Chemical Hazards

 

Buy, use and store chemicals wisely.

  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Familiarize yourself with the ingredients and hazards associated with the materials you
  • Purchase volatile and other hazardous materials in small
  • Ensure proper training of materials’
  • Keep children out of studios where toxic chemicals are
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this
  • Avoid mixing chemicals in the storage
  • Learn local regulations and limits on storage of hazardous
  • Keep chemicals out of direct
  • Store toxic materials in a locked
  • Store reactive chemicals
  • Store hazardous chemicals in secure places away from children, but easy-to-reach to minimize falls and drops (e.g., keep large containers below shoulder height).
  • Store flammable or combustible solvents in fire safety cans in an OSHA-approved fireproof Keep cabinet closed and vented if required by local codes.
  • Never store any material that you are not prepared to control if it

 

  • Avoid using food containers for storage.
  • Keep containers tightly closed to prevent dust or vapor from
  • Use smaller dispensers for small amounts of solvent and label them
  • Continually clean storage and disposal
  • Never remove or deface a manufacturer’s If it is necessary to transfer the product to another container (e.g., due to damage, lost closure, etc.), retain all the label information.
  • Track the date of purchase and date of opening containers.
  • Keep track of expiration dates and properly dispose of expired materials.
  • Keep a current inventory of materials and properly dispose of those with a limited shelf Ideally, use fresh materials.

 

Have appropriate protective equipment and cleaning supplies available.

  • Have cleaning materials for spills near the
  • If protective equipment is needed, store near the
  • Have fire protection, extinguishers, and alarms that are in working order and approved for the chemicals
  • Ensure users know fire evacuation plans for your Post information in clearly visible places if you have visitors to your studio. OSHA requires workplace employees to be trained in these procedures.
  • If corrosives are stored, have an accessible and functional eyewash or

 

Disposal Precautions for Chemical Hazards

 

  • Know what local regulations require for hazardous waste Employers must know state and federal regulations and maintain arrangements with hazardous waste disposal companies.
  • Disposal practices in the employment setting are required to follow the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) which tightly governs all garbage and industrial waste. More information is available online (www.epa.gov/rcraonline/).
  • Recycle when possible, but only donate materials that conform to ASTM D-4236, and do not donate materials with cautionary/warning statements on the label to elementary
  • Do not pour solvents or other hazardous materials and wastes down the drain unless allowed by the sanitary sewer
  • Consider recycling used If disposing, place in sealable, metal containers clearly labeled for disposal.
  • Ensure spray cans are completely empty and dispose of in garbage or
  • Allow glues and cements to dry before disposal in
  • Many localities have special programs for residential disposal of hazardous waste.

Protective Equipment

 

More explicit details about selecting appropriate protective equipment are provided by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) publication #3151 and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health’s (NIOSH) National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory (NPPTL) publications (see References at the end of this section). Employers are required to have OSHA written programs and training for protective equipment.

 

Respirators:

IMPORTANT NOTE: Proper use of a respirator requires training. Hobbyists should seek an occupational clinic for advice and training. Contact your county, local, or state health department for more information. OSHA regulations require workplace employees using respirators to have medical certification, professional fit tests, and training for selecting the appropriate filters and maintenance procedures.

 

  • Seek professional help with fitting; ensure mask fits by performing a user seal check (a test of positive and/or negative pressure) to make certain that an adequate seal is achieved (29 CFR 134 App B-1).
  • Ensure that the respirator you are using complies with recommendations made by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  • Ensure that the type of filter used will remove the chemical or dust you are working Some chemicals require specific cartridges (organic vapor, acidic gas, and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA). There are some chemicals for which there are no approved cartridges.
  • Replace filters and cartridges Never rely on expired cartridges.
  • Put respirator on before entering the work area and remove only after leaving the work
  • Paper dust masks are not effective for chemical vapors and

 

Eye Protection:

  • IMPORTANT NOTE: OSHA regulations require employers to provide appropriate eye protection in accordance with ANSI 1 standards.
  • Many options for impact protection are Consult a reputable vendor for making an informed decision. Look for the “Z87” marking indicating compliance with ANSI Z87.1’s “Basic” impact protection standard and “Z87+” to indicate the “High” impact protection standard.
  • Most prescription glasses are not an adequate substitute for real safety Goggles are available for covering over prescription glasses.
  • Glasses for protecting against chemical splashes are often different from impact protection Ensure that the right glasses are used for different needs.
  • Face shields are sometimes an alternative to glasses, but may require safety glasses worn beneath them if splashing can occur.
  • Prevent fogging of glasses and goggles to keep vision

 

  • For  ultraviolet   radiation   (UV)   and   infrared   (IR) protection, select an appropriate degree of

 

Gloves:

  • Chemical protection is extremely Do not judge a glove’s effectiveness by how waterproof it appears: solvents and other chemicals can pass through glove materials that water would not penetrate. This is called “permeation.” Consult the glove manufacturer’s “permeation charts” to identify the gloves that will withstand the materials you use.
  • After selecting appropriate gloves for the chemicals in use, monitor the glove’s effectiveness while in use and replace worn, ripped, or permeated
  • Use metal-mesh or Kevlar gloves when using sharp tools or
  • Use insulated gloves to protect hands from thermal burns.
  • Use fabric or leather gloves when exerting high pressures or performing repetitive actions to protect from

 

Hearing Protection:

  • Avoid loud noises for long times or frequently repeated loud
  • Power machines  (e.g.,  compressors,  pug  mills)  may produce sound levels that can be damaging to the ears.
  • Pliable earplugs can be used for noise levels up to 120 dB.
  • Do not share earplugs.
  • Earmuffs provide more protection than ear plugs, up to 135 dB. Combine with earplugs for maximum

 

Clothing and accessories:

  • Proper work clothes can greatly reduce
  • Hair restraining caps or bands are recommended when using machines or
  • Remove jewelry  (e.g.,  rings,  necklaces)  that  can  get caught in
  • Avoid loose clothing that can get caught in machines or catch
  • Hard hats are recommended for protection from falling
  • Safety shoes or boots protect against liquids, heat, falling objects, sparks, electric shock and sharp objects.

 

Warning Signs:

 

The following warning slogans are designed to help reduce chemical exposures or mechanical injuries by attracting attention to the basics of art and craft safety. They may be reproduced, where appropriate, for use in any studio or classroom.

 

General Health and Safety:

  • “If you can’t do it safely, then you can’t do it.”
  • “Hurrying hurts.”
  • “Absolutely no food in this ”
  • “Step 1-Be Step 2-Be careful. Step 3-Be careful.”
  • “Creative urges should not overcome your careful ”
  • “Limit exposure to this material.”
  • “No art is worth sacrificing your ”
  • “If you are tired, hungry, angry or sad, you are at a higher risk for injury and Take a break!”
  • “Power tools don’t care how many fingers you have.”
  • “Rushing to finish your project can lead to rushing to the ”
  • “Being careful takes longer, but a trip to the hospital takes even ”
  • “If you have to force it, it’s the wrong ”

 

Use, storage, and disposal:

  • “Always know your ”
  • “Ensure adequate ventilation.”
  • “Keep out of reach of ”
  • “Report shortages of this product to (insert name of studio manager).”
  • “Don’t let  your  materials  destroy  after  you   Dispose of this material properly.”

 

Protective Equipment:

  • “Hazardous Chemical: Wear protective ”
  • “Are you wearing your safety glasses?”
  • “You haven’t felt pain until you’ve had an eye injury.”
  • “Safety gear now or bandages later – You ”
  • “In case of emergency, call

 

It is also advisable to post the National Poison Hotline number, 1-800-222-1222, or the contact information for the nearest certified Poison Control Center.

 

General First Aid

 

Workplace employees must follow the first-aid procedures set out by their employer. Hobbyists are advised to seek medical advice for serious incidents.

 

Eye Exposure:

 

  1. Hold eye(s) open with fingers and immediately RINSE with water for at least 5 If wearing contact lenses, remove them after 5 minutes of washing and continue to rinse eye(s) at least 5 minutes. Note: Rinse time depends on the degree of irritancy associated with a particular product.
  2. For more information and advice, call the National Poison Control Center Hotline, 1-800-222-1222, the nearest certified Poison Control Center, or a

 

Skin Exposure:

 

  1. RINSE skin with
  2. Call the National Poison Control Center Hotline, 1-800- 222-1222, the nearest certified Poison Control Center, or a doctor for more advice.

 

Inhalation:

 

  1. Move person into fresh air.
  2. Call the National Poison Control Center Hotline, 1-800- 222-1222, the nearest certified Poison Control Center, or a doctor for more advice.

 

If Swallowed:

 

  1. IMMEDIATELY call the National Poison Control Center Hotline, 1-800-222-1222, the nearest certified Poison Control Center, or a doctor.

 

Summary of Ways to Minimize Risks

 

Know your materials. Read warnings and labels. Take extra care when using unfamiliar products.

 

Limit exposures. Substitute more hazardous materials with less dangerous ones. Avoid exposures to toxic materials.

 

Stay clean. Use protective gear and practice good hygiene and waste disposal.

 

Clear  the  air.  Control  dusts,  filter  air,  add  clean  air,  and remove fumes with proper exhausts.

 

Store materials properly. Keep out of reach of children. Keep labels on all products.

References

 

ACMI.

www.acminet.org

 

Health & Welfare Canada (1990). The Safer Arts: The Health Hazards of Arts and Crafts Materials. Ottawa, ON: Department of Health and Welfare.

 

McCann, M. (1992). Artist Beware. New York: Lyons & Burford Publishers.

 

National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory (2004).  http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npptl/default.html

 

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (2003). Personal Protective Equipment, publication 3151-12R. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor.  http://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3151.pdf

 

Rossol, M. (2001). The Artist’s Complete Health and Safety Guide. New York: Allworth Press.

 

Thompson, F. M. & Thompson, P. G. (1990). Arts and crafts. In Health and Safety Beyond the Workplace. (L. T. Cralley, L.

  1. Cralley, & W. C. Cooper (Eds). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 9-32.

 

Section III

Hazards Associated with Specific Art and Craft Materials

 

Section I of this guide provided guidelines for use of art and craft materials by children. Section II provided an overview of the general types of hazards associated with art and craft materials, the precautions one can take in using, storing and disposing of materials, as well as first-aid information. Please familiarize yourself with that information in addition to the specific information found in this section.

 

This section is a reference guide to the potential hazards of specific art and craft materials and specific precautions to take when using them. More detailed information is available in the references at the end of this document. Please consult the glossary for any terms that may be unfamiliar. Specific technical information on chemicals/substances can be found on websites such as those of the National Library of Medicine (http://www.nlm.nih.gov), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, http://www.iarc.fr), and the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS, www.epa.gov/iris/).

 

It is important to recognize that while some art and craft materials may cause adverse health effects, the concentrations and exposure times required to produce them may be uncertain, particularly concerning chronic (long-term) exposures. For example, an acute (short-term) exposure to a strong acid may cause severe burns within minutes. It may take years of exposure to a certain concentration, however, for a known human carcinogen to cause cancer, and the exposure time and concentration required may vary  between individuals. Being cautious and limiting exposure to potentially harmful art and craft materials will likely minimize, if not prevent, the possibility of developing adverse health effects in the long term.

 

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The following information was compiled from multiple sources [M. McCann, Ph.D., Monona Rossol, M.S., M.F.A., and the Arts, Crafts & Theater Safety, Inc. (www.artscraftstheatersafety.org),  Dr.  Woodhall Stopford, and the Art & Creative Materials Institute (http://www.acminet.org)]. However, new hazards and information about materials continually emerge, so artists are encouraged to stay aware of the most current information about the materials they use.

 

Ceramics and Clay

 

Clay/modeling clay:

  • Components may include hydrated aluminum silicates (with crystalline silica), talc, vermiculite, asbestos (a contaminant in some talc & vermiculite), kaolin, alumina, diatomaceous earth (silicon dioxide), and
  • Potential health effects from chronic long-term exposure to clay dust or powdered mix include skin irritation, lung

diseases/infections (e.g., asbestosis, silicosis), and cancer (e.g., from asbestos).

  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Avoid inhaling Ensure appropriate ventilation or use a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved toxic dust respirator.
  • When possible, use premixed clays to minimize exposure to large amounts of clay
  • To reduce dust inhalation, do not pulverize dry clay or sand “green ware”. Finish “green ware” (unbaked molded & shaped pottery) while damp/wet.
  • When cleaning do not sweep Use a wet mop, rags, and/or a vacuum with a HEPA filter system.
  • Use machine guards when mixing
  • Check extruder mounting to make sure it is tightly fastened to the work
  • Do not wear ties or other loose clothing when working with slab
  • Wear gloves and/or use moisturizer to prevent dry skin.
  • Rest wrists frequently to avoid repetitive stress injury (e.g., carpel tunnel syndrome).

 

Glazes (mixtures of silica, fluxes, and colorants for finishing or coloring clay):

  • Components may include arsenic, uranium, lead, chromium VI, lithium, beryllium, cobalt, antimony, cadmium, nickel, barium, vanadium, soda ash, potassium carbonate, feldspars, and Some glazes may contain solvents (see Solvents).
  • May be toxic by inhalation, ingestion, and skin
  • Potential health effects from exposure include lung disease, skin irritation, sensitization, heavy metal poisoning, and cancer (e.g., those associated with arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium VI, nickel, and uranium exposure).
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Label lead- and cadmium-containing pieces with phrases such as “Contains Lead, Not for Food Use” or “Contains Lead, For Decoration ” Consider designing or puncturing holes in utilitarian objects to discourage use with food/beverages. If there is even a slight chance that your pottery could be used for food, you should have it tested to meet FDA or state standards if you sell it, but also if you just give pieces to family and friends. The liability remains even if you do not sell pottery.
  • A glaze labeled “food safe” does not mean that it is lead- free, rather it means that if fired and applied properly it will not leach lead or cadmium at concentrations above those allowed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) into food or
  • Do not mix different glazes together because this disrupts the balance of ingredients and could make a “food safe” glaze into an unsafe product.
  • Consider testing all finished ware to ensure that it does not leach potentially toxic metals or

 

  • Consider using lead-free glazes or those with sodium, potassium, calcium, or magnesium
  • Use a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respirator when working with powdered
  • Be aware of the flammability and hazard potential of solvents (see Solvents).
  • Wear protective clothing and gloves.
  • Use a wet mop, rags or HEPA vacuum to clean up spilled Do not sweep.
  • When spraying glazes use a spray booth equipped with a fan that exhausts to the

 

Tools:

  • Users should understand how to operate all tools and take all safety
  • Pug mills can cause crushing and amputation Always keep safety guards in place.
  • Throwing wheels can cause skin or ergonomic
  • Kick wheels can cause shin
  • Kilns: Contact local or state authorities for information on proper installation and safe operation of all Importantly, indoor use of ceramic kilns (electric or fuel- fired) requires mechanical ventilation to the outdoors. Adverse health effects from firing clays and glazes are possible via inhalation (common kiln emissions include chlorine, fluorine, carbon monoxide, metallic vapors, and ozone), dermal contact (burns), and eye exposure (heating ceramic materials to glowing emits  infrared  radiation). To avoid injuries, ensure appropriate ventilation, use appropriate protective clothing and gloves, and wear infrared goggles or a welding shield.
  • To avoid electrocution while working with electrical equipment, use ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI)– protected electrical

 

Salt glazing (the sodium from a salt added to the hot kiln combines with the hydrogen on the clay to convert it to a sodium aluminum silicate which appears as a glass- or glaze- like material.):

  • Check local building codes to ensure that salt kilns are
  • Hydrogen chloride gas, which can be toxic if inhaled, will form during this process if the salt used is sodium Also, hydrogen chloride gas may combine with water vapor to form hydrochloric acid, which is corrosive to the skin and may corrode fittings. Check for metal corrosion regularly.
  • Sodium carbonate (which forms carbon dioxide rather than hydrogen chloride) is a safer alternative to sodium
  • If working with sodium chloride, use only outside with a canopy hood and a high

 

Raku  firing  (involves  the  addition  of  sawdust  or  other materials to heated ceramic ware):

  • The major hazard with raku is burns from handling the pottery with tongs: work
  • Smoke and carbon monoxide formed during this process may be inhalation hazards.
  • To avoid carbon monoxide and smoke exposure, only perform raku firing outdoors away from open windows and air
  • Avoid using sawdust from wood treated with preservatives or pesticides (e.g., chromated copper arsenate-treated wood).

 

Computers

 

Input   devices   (keyboard,   joystick,   mouse)   often   require repetitive motions.

  • Position devices in comfortable
  • Vary motions  as  much  as  possible  to  decrease  strain
  • Keep wrists straight and muscles
  • Take short breaks often (every 10 minutes).

 

Monitors can cause neck, back, and eyestrain.

  • Position monitors  as  far  away  as  possible  and  at  an elevation that does not require bending the neck.
  • Ensure proper task
  • Avoid staring at computer monitors without blinking, which can lead to dry Occasionally look away from the monitor and focus on something far away.

 

Workstation ergonomics:

  • Ensure that feet can touch the floor or footrests when
  • Arms should be placed in a relaxed position.
  • Wrists should be as straight as

 

Repetitive strain injury:

  • If pain, stiffness, or aches occur during some activity, stop immediately and seek alternative positions or
  • Vary motions and change positions and
  • Take short breaks often (every 10 minutes).
  • Use alternate hands for the same

 

Drawing

 

  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).

 

Chalk:

  • Components include    calcium    salts    (e.g.,     calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate).
  • Dusts can be irritating if inhaled. Use non-dusty chalk.

 

Charcoal:

  • Dust may be irritating if
  • Remove excess dust by tapping, not
  • Use a wet mop when

 

Inks:

  • Solvent-based inks may be toxic if ingested or inhaled (see Solvents).
  • Use water-based, water-soluble

 

Markers:

  • Ensure appropriate ventilation or use water-based

 

Pastels:

  • Some pigments such as chrome yellow (lead chromate) may be toxic (e.g., chronic inhalation may cause lung cancer and skin contact may cause irritation). Avoid pigments with lead
  • Dust may be irritating if inhaled, particularly to Use less dusty supplies. Do not blow excess dust, tap the drawing instead.
  • Reduce exposure with appropriate ventilation and use a dust mask, when indicated.
  • Clean with a wet cloth or
  • Oil pastels are a safe alternative because they create less

 

Pencils:

  • Potentially hazardous components include graphite and some pigments in colored
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).

 

Pens:

  • Inks can be inhalation
  • Solvent-based inks (see Solvents) may be highly toxic if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.
  • Use water-based pens.

 

Spray fixatives:

  • Contain solvents (see Solvents), which may be hazardous following an exposure, particularly when
  • Avoid breathing Follow all directions on the product label, such as using a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respirator or an exhaust fan.

 

Gems (Lapidary) and Stones

 

Hard stone (granite, marble):

Soft   stone   (soapstone,   sandstone,   limestone,   greenstone, serpentine):

Lapidary (quartz gemstones (e.g., amethyst and onyx), opal, garnet, etc.):

Stone casts (Portland cement, crushed stone, and sand):

  • Some stones contain silica (e.g., quartz, granite, sandstone, soapstone) and asbestos (e.g., New York soapstone, serpentine, greenstone), which may be toxic if Potential health effects include lung diseases (e.g., asbestosis, silicosis) and cancer (caused by asbestos and crystalline silica).
  • Components in cement include calcium oxide, lime, silica, aluminum, iron compounds, and small amounts of magnesia, sodium, chromium, sulfur, and potassium Potential health effects include skin/eye burns, respiratory effects if inhaled, and gastrointestinal burns if ingested.
  • Avoid stone with
  • Chips may be hazardous to the Wear eye protection and carve away from the body.
  • To avoid inhalation of dust, use a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved
  • Keep dust levels down by wet mopping or vacuuming Avoid sweeping dust.
  • Lifting heavy stones can be Lift carefully to avoid injuries.
  • Wear protective shoes and appropriate clothing (no ties or loose clothing), and tie up long hair to avoid getting entangled in
  • Power tools (e.g., grinding/polishing wheels, sanding machines) generate noise and vibration, which may lead to hearing loss, particularly after long-term Use hearing protection.
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation when using power Direct air away from body.
  • Ensure that power tools are properly
  • To avoid electrocution while working with electrical equipment, use ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI)– protected electrical
  • Keep motors away from

 

Glass

 

Making glass:

  • Components include lead/potash, borosilicates, soda/lime, colorants (e.g., cadmium, chrome, cobalt, iron). Some of these substances may be hazardous via inhalation, ingestion, and skin contact.
  • Use glass cullet or scrap glass if possible to avoid exposure to the powdered chemical components.
  • Use a fume hood, respirator, and
  • Clean up with a wet

 

Firing, melting, annealing, slumping and fusing glass:

  • Emissions from the firing process (e.g., carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, fluorine, sulfur oxides, chlorine, and metal fumes) may be toxic if
  • Beware of thermal hazards (e.g., burns, heat exhaustion).
  • Fibers (ceramic or asbestos) used as insulation in ceramic ovens may be Ensure appropriate ventilation for this activity.
  • Avoid asbestos insulation.
  • Use reflective heat shields and infrared goggles to protect the eyes from infrared radiation.

 

Working glass (glassblowing), lampworking:

  • Potential hazards include burns, cuts, infrared radiation and exposure to fumes from
  • Wear protective shoes, gloves, infrared goggles.

 

  • Use a canopy hood.
  • Glassworkers should cool off frequently.

 

Decorating glass:

  • Methods for decorating glass include etching, staining, and
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Silver nitrate (a corrosive) and gamboge (a yellow pigment which may be toxic by ingestion) are used for
  • Hydrofluoric acid and ammonium bifluoride (both are corrosives) are used for etching and may be highly toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin contact.
  • Avoid hydrofluoric acid, but if used, use with a hood, gloves, a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respirator, and a face
  • Metal colorants used to paint glass include those containing cobalt, lead, manganese, chromium VI, nickel, iron, zinc and These may be toxic by inhalation, ingestion, and skin contact. Potential health effects include lung disease, skin irritation, ulceration, sensitization, cancer (e.g., from exposure to nickel and chromium VI) and metal fume fever.
  • Avoid
  • If an exposure occurs, immediately contact a poison control center for help (dial 1-800-222-1222 for the National Poison Control Center Hotline).
  • Use a spray booth, canopy hood, respirator, gloves, goggles, and an
  • When diluting acids, add acid to water

 

Cutting/sandblasting glass:

  • Glass particles and abrasives may be an inhalation
  • Wear goggles or a face shield and a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respirator to avoid
  • To avoid electrocution while working with electrical equipment, use ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI)– protected electrical
  • Clean water

 

Antiquing:

  • Antiquing agents include antimony sulfide, copper sulfate, and selenium
  • Selenium dioxide may be highly toxic by inhalation and In acid it may form hydrogen selenide, a highly toxic gas.
  • Antimony sulfide may be highly toxic by skin contact, inhalation, and ingestion.
  • Wear appropriate gloves, provide local ventilation or use a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respirator.

 

Stained glass:

  • Potential hazards  associated  with  stained  glass  work

rosin1, and oleic acid), antimony, and arsenic.

  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Lead dust may be highly toxic if ingested or
  • Zinc chloride flux may be highly toxic if fumes from the heated flux are inhaled.
  • Inhaled fumes from heated rosin flux may cause
  • Use copper foil, zinc came, or something other than Avoid red lead.
  • Use lead-free and antimony-free
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this activity, and use a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respirator.
  • Clean up with a wet

 

Glues/Adhesives

 

  • Included in this category are cyanoacrylates, rubber cement, silicones, and
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Cyanoacrylate found in instant glue may cause adhesion of mucous membranes (e.g., eyelids, skin, ).
  • Solvent-based glues such as rubber cement and some epoxies may: 1) be toxic by ingestion and inhalation; 2) be flammable; 3) cause skin and eye irritation, and 4) cause (see Solvents).
  • Use paste, mucilages, or homemade flour glues, but avoid wheat pastes with people who are allergic to wheat.
  • Wear appropriate protection (e.g., gloves, goggles, ).
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this activity, particularly when using solvent-based products.
  • Avoid smoking, open flames, and other ignition sources when using glues with flammable components (e.g., solvents).

 

Leather and Other Animal Products

 

Leather:

  • Dust from sanding leather contains tanning agents, dyes, and glues that may be
  • Avoid dust Ensure appropriate ventilation and use a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respirator.
  • Clean dust with a wet

 

Cementing, dyeing, finishing:

  • Leather dyes and glues may contain solvents (e.g., mineral spirits, turpentine, and toluene) which may be flammable or toxic after an exposure (see Solvents).
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Use water-based dyes or those dissolved in ethyl alcohol.

 

include  exposure  to  lead,  fluxes  (e.g.,  zinc  chloride,                                                                     

1 A rosin is a solid form of resin

 

  • Some leather cleaners may contain oxalic acid which is corrosive and may be highly toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin Avoid cleaners with oxalic acid.
  • Wear appropriate Use gloves, goggles, etc.
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this activity and/or use a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respirator.
  • Store solvent-soaked rags in a safety container.

 

Feathers:

  • Dust from duck/goose feathers may cause “feather- pickers ” The symptoms, which may diminish if the user becomes tolerant, include coughing, fever, nausea, and headaches.
  • Naphthalene and paradichlorobenzene may be applied to feathers as moth These agents are possibly carcinogenic to humans (IARC, Group 2B). Air these feathers outdoors before use.
  • Naphthalene and paradichlorobenzene may be toxic following ingestion, inhalation, or skin
  • Vacuum feathers on a screen from below before use.
  • Use a dust mask and wear gloves.

 

Shells:

  • Dust generated from sanding shells may be harmful following inhalation (e.g., inhalation of mother-of-pearl dust may cause fever and respiratory problems such as infections).
  • Clean well or purchase pre-cleaned
  • Use a wet grinder and/or a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved

 

Bones:

  • Degrease bones Bones not cleaned properly may cause infections or spread anthrax.
  • Degreasing solvents (e.g., carbon tetrachloride) that are used to dissolve fats/oils may be hazardous (see Solvents).
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Avoid chlorinated hydrocarbon Use mineral spirits.
  • Dust formed from sanding may cause respiratory problems when
  • Use gloves and ensure appropriate ventilation for this activity or work Use a wet technique and/or a dust mask.

 

Metals

 

Anodizing (involves the electrolytic treatment of metals (e.g., aluminum and magnesium) with coatings (e.g., titanium) to form a heavy, stable metal oxide coating):

  • The primary electrolytes used are sulfuric, oxalic, and chromic acids, which are corrosive and may be toxic by inhalation, ingestion, and skin/eye
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Metal cleaners contain caustics (sodium hydroxide) which may be toxic by inhalation, ingestion, and skin/eye
  • Some metals are Be aware of potential fire hazards.
  • To avoid electrocution while working with electrical equipment, use ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI)– protected electrical
  • Wear appropriate protective gloves, goggles, and apron.

 

Electroplating (the deposition of a metal onto an object via an electrolytic method):

  • Ingredients in electrolytic solutions include copper sulfate, sulfuric acid, and
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Cyanide salts can be toxic by ingestion, inhalation, or skin
  • Avoid cyanide plating If used, ensure appropriate ventilation for this activity, be familiar with the hazards, and alert your local emergency room to have a cyanide kit available.
  • Sulfuric acid (> 10%) is corrosive on contact with the skin/eyes, mucous membranes, respiratory and gastrointestinal
  • Wear protective clothing, chemical splash goggles, and

 

Forging or smithing (shaping metals by hammering):

  • Furnaces used for forging with heat may release metal fumes and toxic gases (e.g., carbon monoxide) and infrared
  • Be aware of fire and thermal Practice fire prevention (e.g., store combustibles away from heat, install sprinklers, obtain a fire extinguisher, etc.).
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this
  • Install carbon monoxide alarms.
  • Wear protective clothing, gloves, earplugs, and infrared goggles or a face

 

Foundry (the art of casting metals into molds):

  • Mold types include channel, cuttlebone, sand, and lost
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Potential hazards associated with mold making include exposure to the following materials or contaminants: silica, formaldehyde, isocyanates, asbestos, and
  • Avoid casting in
  • Potentially toxic gases, including hydrogen cyanide and carbon monoxide, may form depending on the mold
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this activity and/or use a
  • Wear protective clothing, gloves, and goggles.

 

  • Clean dust and mold materials with a wet mop or

 

Gilding (involves overlaying a thin layer of gold or silver on a surface using size (glue) or amalgamation with mercury):

  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Avoid using mercury, if Heating the amalgam of mercury with gold and/or silver will release mercury vapor which may be toxic if inhaled.
  • Potential health effects from inhalation exposure to mercury include swollen gums, vomiting, diarrhea, kidney failure, bronchitis, pneumonitis, and nervous system
  • Avoid prolonged or repeated skin contact with mercury because it may cause allergic contact
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation when working with
  • Carefully store mercury in closed containers and thoroughly clean up all spills with special Only vacuum with equipment designed to pick up mercury.

 

Grinding and polishing:

  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Avoid using metals that may be highly toxic such as lead and
  • Wear appropriate clothing and eye protection.
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this activity to avoid exposure to metal dust and
  • Clean by wet mopping or with a HEPA Do not sweep dust.

 

Melting/pouring metal:

  • Furnace and metal fumes may be toxic if
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Be aware of fire and thermal Practice fire prevention (e.g., store combustibles away from heat, install sprinklers, obtain a fire extinguisher, etc.).
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this
  • Install carbon monoxide alarms.
  • Furnaces can cause heat stress and emit infrared
  • Wear protective clothing, gloves, and eye protection.

 

Niello (involves decorating or inlaying an incised design on metal with black metallic alloys of sulfur with lead, copper or silver):

  • Inhalation of lead sulfide dust from grinding or lead fumes from heating is
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this activity and/or use a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respirator.
  • Wear protective clothing and eye

Patina  (a  green  or  brown  coloring  of  metal  produced  by natural or chemically induced oxidation):

  • Numerous patina chemicals are available including ammonium sulfide, ammonium hydroxide, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid, barium sulfide, chromium VI compounds, copper compounds, ferric  chloride, hydrogen peroxide, lead acetate, liver of sulfur (potassium sulfide), nitric acid, oxalic acid, potassium ferricyanide, sodium hydroxide, and zinc chloride.
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Many patina chemicals may be toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and/or skin/eye
  • Wear protective clothing and eye

 

Pickling (a method of cleaning metal using chemicals (e.g., dilute inorganic acid solutions)) :

  • Components may include sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, and sodium bisulfate.
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Concentrated acid solutions are corrosive and some, such as hydrofluoric acid, may cause toxicity throughout the body (e.g., hypocalcemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia, and cardiac dysrhythmias).
  • Avoid cyanide-containing metal cleaning
  • If possible, use steel wool to clean metal instead of
  • Wear protective clothing, gloves, eye protection, and apron and have an eyewash fountain and emergency shower available when using concentrated
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this activity and/or use a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respirator.

 

Soldering:

  • Metals (e.g., cadmium, lead, silver, antimony, and zinc), fluxes (e.g., zinc chloride, rosin, and fluoride), and cleaners/degreasers (e.g., solvents and acids) used in the soldering process may be
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Use lead-free and cadmium-free
  • Various fluxes are available including those with acid, borax, fluoride, and Do not mix fluxes because potentially toxic vapors may form. Avoid fluxes with fluoride.
  • Silver salts may discolor the skin, eyes, and mucous Some silver salts are irritants and others may be corrosive (e.g., silver nitrate).
  • Wear eye protection and
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this

 

Welding (e.g., oxyacetylene and arc welding):

  • Follow safety standards established by federal and state governments, and other organizations (e.g., the American

 

Welding  Society,  National  Fire  Protection  Association, and the American National Standards Institute).

  • Gases and fumes from gas cylinders, vaporized metals, and fluxes may be toxic if Follow appropriate respiratory hygiene.
  • Byproducts from welding stainless steel have been known to be
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Formal training in a certified program is
  • Use care when handling gas cylinders (e.g., oxygen, acetylene, propane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, ).
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for protection from potentially dangerous gases, metal fumes, and
  • Infrared and ultraviolet radiation generated during welding may be an eye Wear appropriate eye protection (goggles or face shield).
  • Practice fire prevention (e.g., store combustibles away from heat, install sprinklers, obtain a fire extinguisher, ).
  • Noise can damage hearing. Wear fire-resistant
  • Wear protective clothing and eye

 

Painting

 

General Information/Precautions

 

  • The potential hazards from paints are primarily associated with some of the vehicles/solvents (e.g., aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, and alcohols; see Solvents) and pigments (e.g., lead carbonate, chrome yellow, cobalt arsenate).
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Use premixed paints to avoid inhalation of dry pigments/dyes/powders.
  • Use water-based products or observe the precautions on hazard-labeled products to reduce the potential hazards from
  • Be aware that small amounts of formaldehyde, bleach and phenol used as preservatives in some paints may cause allergic reactions in sensitive If sensitive to these chemicals, contact the manufacturer of the paints you intend to use.
  • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) prohibited the use of mercury compounds in interior-use wall paints after July 1990 but there is no prohibition against mercury in artists’ paints.
  • Wear protective clothing and gloves to prevent skin contact and tracking of materials to non-work
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation, especially when spraying or airbrushing It may be advisable to use a spray booth and/or use an appropriate respirator (e.g.,  a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respirator with an organic vapor cartridge).
  • Close containers of paint, pigments/dyes, and solvents when not in use.
  • Remove paint from hands with vegetable or baby oil then wash with soap and water.
  • Avoid turpentine and mineral
  • Be aware of the flammability potential of

 

Spray painting/airbrushing:

  • This category includes the use of spray guns, airbrushes, and aerosol spray cans for paint
  • The paints used may be water-based or solvent-based and contain pigments.
  • Use water-based paints to reduce exposure to
  • Aerosol spray paints sometimes contain propellants or pigments that may be toxic when inhaled (e.g., isobutanes and propane). Read the label.
  • Fine particulates from spraying may remain airborne up to 2 hours and may cause headaches, nausea, fatigue, and breathing problems if
  • Propellants in aerosol spray products may be Practice fire prevention (e.g., store combustibles away from heat, install sprinklers, obtain a fire extinguisher, etc.).
  • If possible, use outdoors or with a spray booth or a fume hood and a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respirator with an organic vapor
  • Heated or punctured cans may
  • Use clear acrylic polymer emulsion to fix

 

Paints

 

Acrylics (water-based):

  • Some contain small amounts of ammonia (as a stabilizer) and formaldehyde (as a preservative), which may cause respiratory irritation and may also cause allergies in sensitized If sensitive to these chemicals, contact the manufacturer of the paints you intend to use.
  • Ensure proper ventilation for this activity.

 

Acrylics (solvent-based):

  • Contain solvents and are thinned/cleaned with solvents including turpentine, xylene, toluene, and methyl ethyl ketone (see Solvents).
  • May be toxic primarily from inhalation of the solvent
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this

 

Alkyds:

  • Contain solvents and are thinned/cleaned with solvents including turpentine, xylene, toluene, and methyl ethyl ketone (see Solvents).
  • May be toxic primarily from inhalation of the solvent
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this

Caseins:

  • Consist of dried milk, pigments, and preservatives.
  • Can be hazardous to people with

 

  • May be dissolved in ammonium hydroxide which may cause irritation after skin/eye contact, ingestion, and

 

Encaustics:

  • Consist of a suspension of pigments and other materials in
  • Can be a burn
  • Wax decomposition materials (e.g., acrolein, formaldehyde, pigment fumes) formed from heating or torching the wax may cause respiratory
  • Minimize vapor formation by only heating the wax to the minimum temperature required for
  • Avoid open flames when melting Use a double boiler.
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this

 

Epoxy paints:

  • Consist of a pigment-containing epoxy resin, which may contain solvents such as diglycidyl ethers, and a
  • Hardeners may cause respiratory irritation and skin/respiratory
  • Diglycidyl ether may be highly toxic by inhalation, ingestion, and skin/eye It may cause a number of health effects including dermal burns, severe eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritation, and skin sensitization. It is also a possible reproductive toxin in laboratory animals.
  • Wear gloves and goggles.
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this activity, and use a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respirator with an organic vapor cartridge to avoid Replace cartridge regularly.

 

Latex paints:

  • Consist of water emulsions of plastic resins, pigments, and about 5 to 15% solvents including glycol ethers (see Solvents).
  • Glycol ethers may be toxic if ingested, inhaled, or absorbed by skin
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this

 

Water-based paints:

  • Use formaldehyde-free products, when possible.
  • Some water-based paints may contain formaldehyde as a preservative which may cause allergic reactions in sensitive If sensitive to this chemical, contact the manufacturer of the paints you intend to use.
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this

 

Oils:

  • Contain pigments, fillers, and sometimes solvents including paint thinner, turpentine, and mineral spirits (see Solvents). When possible, choose oil paints with few or no cautionary/warning labels.
  • Some pigments and solvents may be toxic if ingested, inhaled, or absorbed by the
  • Use turpentine and mineral spirits only as directed on the product warning label or use non-toxic alternatives and only use  clean-up  products  that  say  they  conform  to

ASTM D4236 to ensure that you are using a clean-up product that has been properly evaluated under LHAMA.

  • Remove paint from hands with vegetable/baby oil or non- toxic artist’s soaps and detergent cleaners rather than with
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this
  • Use a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respirator with an organic vapor cartridge and gloves when specified on the product

 

Tempera paints:

  • Contain emulsions of oils, or wax, and some have egg or gum casein, and small quantities of
  • Some preservatives may cause allergic reactions in sensitive

 

Fresco paints:

  • Fresco is a method of applying powdered pigments mixed in limewater (a saturated aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide) to a wall of damp fresh plaster.
  • Powdered lime and limewater are corrosive and may be toxic by ingestion, inhalation, or skin/eye
  • Wear gloves and goggles to protect the eyes and

 

Varnishes, lacquers:

  • Some contain solvents (e.g., turpentine, methanol, ethyl alcohol, toluene, and mineral spirits) which may be toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and/or by skin contact/absorption (see Solvents).
  • Be aware of the flammability potential of  various Practice fire prevention (e.g., store combustibles away from heat, install sprinklers, obtain a fire extinguisher, etc.).
  • Use gloves, ensure appropriate ventilation, and use a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respirator with an organic vapor cartridge when specified on the product label or use non- toxic
  • Dispose of solvents
  • Remove lacquers from hands with vegetable/baby oil or non-toxic artist soaps and detergent cleaners rather than with
  • Wash hands with soap and water if solvents get on hands.

 

Watercolors and gouache (opaque watercolor):

  • Watercolors in dry cake form contain pigments, preservatives, and binders (e.g., gum arabic and gum tragacanth). Water, glycerin, and glucose are also included in liquid watercolor formulations.
  • Gouache contains pigments, gums, preservatives, glycerin, and opacifiers (e.g., chalk and talc).
  • Some pigments may be toxic by Avoid inhaling powders.
  • Gum arabic and gum tragacanth may cause skin irritation and
  • Some paints may contain small amounts of formaldehyde or paraformaldehyde as If sensitive to these

 

chemicals,  contact  the  manufacturer  of  the  paints  you intend to use to determine if they contain preservatives.

 

Paint stripping:

  • Ingredients in paint stripping formulations include solvents (e.g., acetone, methanol, and toluene; see Solvents), methylene chloride, N-methylpyrrolidone, or dibasic
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Methylene chloride may be toxic by inhalation, ingestion, or skin It is a possible carcinogen in humans (IARC, Group 2B), an eye, skin, nose, and lung irritant, it may be corrosive, produce adverse cardiovascular effects, cause liver and kidney damage after prolonged exposure, and is metabolized to carbon monoxide.
  • Those with heart, lung, and blood problems should avoid methylene
  • N-methylpyrrolidone may cause skin blistering/burning.
  • Solvent-based paint strippers are Avoid open flames and practice fire prevention (e.g., store combustibles away from heat, install sprinklers, obtain a fire extinguisher, etc.).
  • Use products with methylene chloride and/or solvents
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this activity and use a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respirator.
  • Wear appropriate gloves and
  • Have an eyewash and shower

 

Paper and Canvases

 

Papermaking:

  • Substances typically used in papermaking include alum (potassium aluminum sulfate), lye, ammonia, chlorine bleach, hydrogen peroxide, pigments, natural colorants/dyes, washing soda (sodium carbonate), acetic acid, and potassium
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Household solutions of chlorine bleach (5%), ammonia (< 3%), hydrogen peroxide (3%), and acetic acid (vinegar ~ 4 to 6%) may cause skin/eye, respiratory, and mucous membrane Concentrated solutions of these chemicals are corrosive.
  • Washing soda and lye are
  • Some pigments may be Use pre-mixed pigments.
  • Identify and avoid toxic woods and plants.
  • Wear gloves, apron, goggles or a face shield, and have an eyewash and/or shower
  • To avoid electrocution while working with electrical equipment, use ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI)– protected electrical
  • Noise and debris from beaters, macerators, and blenders may cause Use proper machine guards and earplugs.

 

Marbling (involves floating paints on a layer of carrageenan gel on water):

  • Typically, paint adhesion is improved by sponging the paper with alum (potassium aluminum sulfate).
  • Some pigments and dyes may be
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Alum may cause skin irritation or allergic
  • Mix powdered pigments in a glove box (a sealed transparent container with built-in gloves used to manipulate materials) or, when possible, use premixed

 

Photographic Materials

 

Mixing developing powders:

  • Developing powders are usually highly alkaline and may cause chemical Powders may be toxic by ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact.
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Avoid photochemicals with the greatest toxicity potential (e.g., chromic acid, cyanide, and lead).
  • Use a glove box (a sealed transparent container with built- in gloves used to manipulate materials) to mix powdered developers or use solutions when possible.
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this activity and/or use a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respirator.
  • Wear eye protection, gloves, and an
  • Store acids on low shelves to decrease chances of face/eye exposure in case of container breakage.
  • Have an eyewash and shower To avoid spreading the chemicals to other body parts, perform eye irrigation at low water pressure.
  • Avoid storing photochemicals in glass containers which may explode under pressure.

 

Film developers:

  • Chemicals used in developing film include hydroquinone (a mutagen), N-methyl p-aminophenol, sodium sulfite, sodium carbonate (concentrations greater than 15% may be caustic), and potassium
  • Some of these chemicals may be toxic if ingested, inhaled, or absorbed by skin
  • Many developers cause skin/eye irritation and allergic reactions (contact dermatitis).
  • Use tongs instead of bare hands to handle prints.
  • Keep an eyewash

 

Stop baths:

  • Stop baths usually contain acetic acid and may contain potassium chrome alum as a

 

  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Potassium chrome alum may be toxic by inhalation or skin
  • Concentrated acetic acid may be highly toxic if ingested, inhaled, or absorbed by the
  • Avoid glacial acetic If necessary, use solutions with 50% or less acetic acid.
  • Store acids on low shelves to decrease chances of face/eye exposure in case of container breakage.
  • Keep baths covered when not in use to prevent evaporation/release of potentially toxic

Fixers:

  • Components may include hypo or sodium thiosulfate (fixing agent), acetic acid (neutralizer), sodium sulfite or sodium bisulfite (preservatives), potassium aluminum sulfate (hardener), and boric acid (buffer).
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Concentrated solutions of acetic acid may be highly toxic if ingested, inhaled, or absorbed by the
  • Decomposition of sulfites may lead to formation of sulfur dioxide gas which may cause respiratory problems, especially in
  • Boric acid may be toxic if ingested, but it is poorly absorbed through the skin.
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation that removes contaminated air with exhaust above and behind trays and provides lots of fresh
  • Wear appropriate gloves and
  • Keep baths covered when not in use to prevent evaporation/release of potentially toxic

 

Intensifiers and reducers:

  • Components of intensifiers include hydrochloric acid, potassium dichromate, potassium chlorochromate, and mercuric
  • Components of reducers include potassium ferricyanide (in Farmer’s reducer), ammonium or potassium persulfate, potassium permanganate, and sulfuric
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Potassium dichromate and other hexavalent chromium compounds are human carcinogens (IARC, Group 1).
  • Potassium chlorochromate and potassium ferricyanide may release toxic gases (chlorine and hydrogen cyanide, respectively) when heated, combined with acid, or when exposed to strong UV
  • Mercury compounds may be toxic if ingested, inhaled, or absorbed via skin
  • Avoid intensifiers with mercury, cyanide, or
  • Hydrochloric acid, potassium dichromate, potassium chlorochromate, and sulfuric acid are
  • Potassium permanganate and ammonium persulfate are powerful oxidizers which may cause fires or explosions

when   in   contact   with   organic   or   other   oxidizable materials.

  • Wear appropriate gloves and
  • Ensure darkroom ventilation that provides lots of fresh air and exhausts contaminated air at the rate of at least 10 room volume changes per hour.

 

Toners:

  • The toning process involves replacing silver in a print with another metal (e.g., gold, brown silver sulfide, selenium, uranium lead, cobalt, platinum,  or  iron). Toners may also contain
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Sulfides may release toxic hydrogen sulfide gas during toning or when combined with
  • Selenium may release sulfur dioxide gas and in combination with acid may form hydrogen selenide
  • Gold and platinum salts are skin sensitizers.
  • Use appropriate gloves, goggles, a respirator, or a glove box, and ensure appropriate ventilation for this
  • Ensure sulfide and selenium toners are not contaminated with
  • Rinse prints well between bleaching and
  • Always dilute acid by adding acid to water.
  • Do not add acid to bleach and do not heat
  • Wear appropriate gloves, goggles, and an acid-proof
  • To avoid electrocution while working with electrical equipment and various solutions, use ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI)–protected electrical

 

Plastic

 

Potentially hazardous components used to  make  plastic include monomers (e.g., methyl methacrylate), initiators (e.g., organic peroxides: methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, benzoyl peroxide, etc.), and other additives (e.g., plasticizers, solvents, etc.).

 

Acrylic resins:

  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Methyl methacrylate is a moderate irritant and It may be toxic if inhaled or following skin contact.
  • Benzoyl peroxide (an initiator or hardener) is an allergen and it may also irritate the skin, eyes, and mucous It is also flammable.
  • Avoid inhaling acrylic Use appropriate gloves and a dust mask/respirator and ensure appropriate ventilation for this activity.

 

Amino  and  phenolic  resins  (e.g.,  urea  formaldehyde  and phenol formaldehyde):

  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).

 

  • Formaldehyde may be toxic by ingestion, inhalation, or skin It is a probable human carcinogen (IARC, Group 2A). Avoid exposure to formaldehyde.
  • Phenol may be toxic by ingestion, inhalation, or skin
  • Carbon monoxide, cyanide (from amino resins), and formaldehyde gas can be released from machining (e.g., sanding, sawing, drilling) or heating the cured resins.
  • Use appropriate gloves, and ensure appropriate ventilation for this

 

Epoxy resins:

  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Amine-containing epoxy hardeners may be toxic if inhaled or absorbed via skin
  • Solvents (e.g., glycidyl ethers) in epoxies may be toxic (see Solvents).
  • Epoxy resins may irritate the skin and lungs, and may also cause
  • If fiberglass is used with epoxies for reinforcement, avoid fiberglass dust which may cause respiratory and skin
  • Use appropriate gloves, goggles, and ensure appropriate

 

Polyester resins:

  • Contents include a cross-linking agent (e.g., styrene), an initiator (e.g., organic peroxides: methyl ethyl ketone peroxide or MEK-P) and fiberglass.
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Styrene may be toxic via inhalation or skin It is possibly carcinogenic in humans based on evidence in animals (IARC, Group 2B).
  • Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEK-P) may be toxic by inhalation, ingestion, or skin/eye It may be absorbed by the skin and may cause serious eye damage or blindness. Concentrated solutions may be corrosive.
  • Handle MEK-P Do not mix with certain solvents (e.g., acetone or accelerator) because it may form an explosive mixture. Practice fire prevention (e.g., store combustibles away from heat, install sprinklers, obtain a fire extinguisher, etc.).
  • Fiberglass dust may cause respiratory and skin
  • Use appropriate gloves, goggles, respirator, protective clothing, and ensure appropriate ventilation for this

 

Polyurethane resins:

  • Other components may include isocyanates, metal salts, and amine
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Isocyanates are respiratory/skin/eye irritants and Avoid products with isocyanates.
  • Do not heat urethane Heating may release toxic gases (e.g., carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide).
  • Polyurethane resins are not recommended for those with allergies, respiratory and/or cardiac
  • Use appropriate protective clothing, gloves, and goggles.
  • Use appropriate exhaust, a spray booth, and an air- supplied respirator.

 

Silicones & natural rubber:

  • Substances in silicone resin systems include acetic acid, methanol, acetone, methylene chloride, peroxides, and ethyl silicate (see Solvents).
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Methanol and acetic acid vapors released during the curing process may be toxic if inhaled.
  • Methylene chloride may be toxic by inhalation, ingestion, or skin It is a possible carcinogen in humans, an eye, skin, nose, and lung irritant, it may be corrosive, produce adverse cardiovascular effects, cause liver and kidney damage after prolonged exposure, and is metabolized to carbon monoxide.
  • Avoid methylene chloride if you have heart, lung, and/or blood problems.
  • Silicone resin systems may cause skin
  • Natural rubber latex contains isoprene, natural proteins (which may cause serious allergies) and may contain solvents such as n-hexane (see Solvents) or other n-Hexane may be toxic by inhalation causing neurologic effects such as headache, dizziness, numbness, and central nervous system depression. n-Hexane may also be irritating to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes.
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this
  • Wear appropriate gloves and

 

Organic peroxides:

  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEK-P) may be toxic by inhalation, ingestion, or skin/eye It may be absorbed by the skin and may cause serious eye damage or blindness. Concentrated solutions may be corrosive.
  • Handle MEK-P Do not mix with certain solvents (e.g., acetone or accelerator) because it may form an explosive mixture. Practice fire prevention (e.g., store combustibles away from heat, install sprinklers, obtain a fire extinguisher, etc.).
  • Benzoyl peroxide is an It may also irritate the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. It is also flammable.
  • Cumene hydroperoxide may irritate the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes and it is a known skin sensitizer.
  • Organic peroxides are reactive and unstable and should not be heated, exposed to direct heat or sunlight, mixed with other materials (e.g., solvents or accelerators), stored in clear glass, or kept in large

 

  • Wear appropriate gloves, goggles, and protective
  • Ensure appropriate exhaust, and use a
  • Soak tools and containers that have been in contact with organic peroxides in water before Ensure proper disposal at a hazardous waste facility.

 

Finished plastic (sheets, films, beads, or blocks):

  • Heating or cutting plastics may release potentially toxic decomposition products (e.g., polyvinyl chloride may produce hydrochloric acid vapors and nylon may produce hydrogen cyanide gas).
  • Solvents may be toxic (see Solvents).
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Dust generated from cutting plastics may contain a number of additives including plasticizers (e.g., phthalates), stabilizers, adhesives (with solvents), and
  • Polymer dusts may irritate the
  • Use appropriate gloves, goggles, dust mask or
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this
  • Clean up with a vacuum or wet
  • Practice fire prevention (e.g., store combustibles away from heat, install sprinklers, obtain a fire extinguisher, ).

 

Styrofoam:

  • Gases released from heating or burning styrofoam may be
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).

 

Printmaking

 

Techniques  include  lithography,  intaglio,  silkscreen,  and relief.

 

Inks

 

Pigments/dyes:

  • Some ink pigments (e.g., chrome- or cobalt-containing) and dyes may be
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Avoid lead-containing pigments.
  • Use premixed and water-based inks when possible.
  • Use a glove box (a sealed transparent container with built- in gloves used to manipulate materials), or a toxic dust respirator, and ensure appropriate ventilation when working with powdered pigments.
  • Do not sweep powders. Use a wet mop to clean
  • Wear appropriate gloves or use barrier cream to protect

Vehicles/modifiers:

  • Common vehicles include mixtures of oils, solvents and oils, and polymer Additives include stabilizers, preservatives, plasticizers, and fillers.
  • Modifiers such as oils, solvents, driers, antiskinning agents, tack reducers and stiffeners (e.g., petroleum jelly and vegetable shortening), may be added to vehicles to alter their performance (e.g., drying time).
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Avoid driers with lead or
  • Solvents may be toxic by inhalation, ingestion, or skin
  • Some vehicles may be flammable, so avoid open flame and place oil-soaked rags in special disposal cans or pails of
  • Practice fire prevention (e.g., store combustibles away from heat, install sprinklers, obtain a fire extinguisher, ).
  • Use appropriate gloves, goggles, dust mask or

 

Lithography (involves drawing on metal plates or stone with grease-based crayons/ink then washing the plate/stone with a solution so that only the image area is receptive to ink and will be printed when pressed to paper):

 

Drawing materials:

  • Solvents (e.g., turpentine) in lithographic tusches may be toxic by inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption (see Solvents).
  • Lithographic crayons/pencils may contain pigments (e.g., lead chromate, lampblack, zinc chromate) which may be toxic and/or have carcinogenic
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Avoid lead-containing pigments.
  • Avoid skin contact with solvents and Wear appropriate protective clothing and gloves.
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation, and use a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)- approved respirator when

 

Stone or metal plate processing:

  • Substances used in stone or plate processing include acids, rosin dust, talc, dichromate salts, solvents, and solvent-based vinyl lacquers.
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Avoid asbestos-contaminated
  • Some etching solutions contain acids (e.g., hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and hydrofluoric acid).
  • Dutch mordant, an etching product containing potassium chlorate, hydrochloric acid and water, is Toxic chlorine gas is released during preparation.
  • Nitric acid may ignite/combust when mixed with other materials including  some  acids,  solvents,  or

 

Also,  etching  with  nitric  acid  may  release  nitrogen dioxide which may be toxic by inhalation.

  • Concentrated acid solutions are corrosive and some may cause burns and systemic toxicity (e.g., hydrofluoric acid).
  • Dichromate salts are corrosive and may be toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin Hexavalent chromium compounds are known human carcinogens (IARC, Group 1).
  • Avoid etches with concentrated acids (e.g., hydrofluoric acid or nitric acid) and counter-etches and fountain solutions with dichromate Use prepared etches when possible.
  • Rosin dust may cause allergic reactions (e.g., asthma and dermatitis) in sensitive
  • Store acids separately from other materials.
  • Dilute acid by adding acid to water.
  • Wear appropriate protection (e.g., gloves, goggles, and apron) and have an eyewash fountain and emergency shower available when using concentrated
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for the particular product (e.g., solvent, acid, ). You may need an exhaust hood, a window exhaust fan, and/or a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respirator.
  • Practice fire prevention (e.g., store combustibles away from heat, install sprinklers, obtain a fire extinguisher, ).

 

Stone cleaning:

  • Phenol, caustic soda (sodium hydroxide), and mixtures of gum arabic and phosphoric acid are used to clean stones.
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Phenol and caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) are corrosive and may be toxic by ingestion, skin contact/absorption, and
  • Remove phenol quickly after skin contact with undiluted polyethylene glycol 300 to 400 (PEG 300 or PEG 400) or isopropyl Use soapy water for washing,  not water alone.
  • If possible, avoid products with phenol and caustic
  • Use appropriate gloves, goggles, respirator, and

 

Photolithography  (the  transfer  of  a  graphic  image  to  an emulsion-coated stone or metal plate):

  • Components of the emulsions used include powdered albumin, ammonia, water, ammonium dichromate, diazo compounds, and plate conditioners with strong Solvents may be a component of the developing solutions.
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Solvents may be toxic and/or flammable (see Solvents).
  • Strong alkali (e.g., concentrated ammonia) is corrosive and may be toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin/eye Ammonia may be irritating at low concentrations (< 3%).
  • Ammonium dichromate is corrosive and may be toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin/eye
  • Hexavalent chromium compounds are known human carcinogens (IARC, Group 1).
  • Ammonium dichromate is flammable and a strong
  • Carbon arc lights used in photolithography generate potentially toxic fumes (e.g., nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, metal, and ozone) and ultraviolet (UV) Avoid using these lights or ensure appropriate ventilation for this activity.
  • Use gloves, welding goggles (for protection against UV radiation), an exhaust hood, plastic apron, and a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)- approved respirator (for mixing powders and/or spraying photoemulsions).
  • Practice fire prevention (e.g., store combustibles away from heat, install sprinklers, obtain a fire extinguisher, ).

 

Intaglio (the etching/engraving of an image onto a metal plate followed by the addition of ink into the depressions and then the transfer of the image to paper):

 

  • Intaglio involves the use of etches (e.g., acids, Dutch mordant, ferric chloride) and resists (to protect unetched plate areas) such as stopout varnishes containing solvents, and grounds with asphaltum dust, and rosin dust, or spray paints for
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Rosin dusts and asphaltum dusts may cause respiratory effects (e.g., irritation) if Rosin may cause allergic reactions (e.g., asthma and dermatitis) in sensitive individuals.
  • When confined in an aquatint box (a sealed box in which one creates a cloud of resin dust) resin or asphaltum dust may explode from sparks or static Use an explosion-proof box when using these dusts.
  • Solvents may be toxic by inhalation, ingestion,  or skin/eye contact and some solvents are flammable (see Solvents).
  • Ferric chloride may cause respiratory, skin, and eye
  • Dutch mordant, an etching product containing potassium chlorate, hydrochloric acid and water, is Toxic chlorine gas is released during preparation. Avoid using Dutch mordant or use with extreme caution.
  • Acids used for etching are corrosive and may cause systemic toxicity (e.g., hydrofluoric acid).
  • Nitric acid may ignite/combust when mixed with other materials including some solvents and Also, etching with nitric acid may release nitrogen dioxide which may be toxic by inhalation.
  • Use extreme caution when using concentrated Wear appropriate protection (e.g., gloves, goggles, and apron) and have an eyewash fountain and emergency shower available.

 

  • Store acids separately from other materials.
  • Dilute acid by adding acid to water.
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation when acid etching and applying stopouts or
  • Practice fire prevention (e.g., store combustibles away from heat, install sprinklers, obtain a fire extinguisher, ).

 

Photoetching (involves using photoresist dye, developers, and ultraviolet lamps):

  • Photoresist dyes and developers typically contain solvents including various glycol ether acetates, xylene, and These may be toxic when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed via skin contact.
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Some methylene and ethylene ether acetates may cause adverse reproductive effects (e.g., birth defects, low sperm counts).
  • Carbon arc lights generate potentially toxic fumes (e.g., nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, metal, and ozone) and ultraviolet (UV) Avoid using these lights or ensure appropriate ventilation for this activity and wear welder’s goggles.
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this activity and wear appropriate gloves (e.g., butyl rubber) and a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)- approved respirator.

 

Drypoint, engraving, and mezzotint (involves using sharp tools to make lines in metal plates):

  • Metal dust generated may be irritating when Use a respirator or appropriate mask for protection.
  • Repetitive movements from long-term tool use may cause carpel tunnel
  • Rest frequently, avoid gripping the tools tightly, and set an appropriate work table height to avoid repetitive strain
  • Avoid laceration injuries by using a clamp plate to prevent slipping, cutting away from the body, keeping tools sharp, and storing tools with guards.

 

Relief printing (involves cutting away areas of materials, such as wood, linoleum, or acrylic, while the remaining surface is inked and printed):

  • Inks used in relief printing contain pigments (see Printmaking), solvents (see Solvents), and other materials that may be
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Use water and non-toxic inks, water-soluble glues, liquid wax, rubber, or paper resists.
  • Use low temperatures to heat Avoid open flame.
  • Use the appropriate gloves, goggles, protective apron, and ensure appropriate ventilation for this
  • Prevent carpel tunnel syndrome by resting frequently and avoiding tight gripping of the cutting
  • Avoid laceration injuries by cutting away from the body, using bench hooks while carving, and storing tools with guards in place.

 

Screen printing (involves stenciling or blocking with a resist on a framed screen and then applying ink through the screen to paper):

  • Inks used in screen printing contain pigments (see Printmaking), solvents (see Solvents), and other materials that may be toxic and or hazardous (e.g., flammable).
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Stencil films may be attached or removed from screens with water-based or solvent-based products (see Solvents).
  • Products made to resist inks known as “resists” may be solvent-based (e.g., containing lacquers, shellacs, polyurethane varnishes, see Solvents) or water-based.
  • When possible use water-based products (i.e., inks, emulsions, resists, ).
  • Screen cleaners contain solvents (see Solvents). Use care when cleaning or use disposable Do not put solvent-soaked rags in open waste cans; place in covered metal cans to prevent combustion.
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this activity and/or use a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respirator particularly when using solvent-based products.
  • Diazo photoemulsions may cause eye irritation, but are safer than emulsions with ammonium dichromate, a human carcinogen (IARC, Group 1), which is also flammable and may be toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin/eye
  • Carbon arc lights generate potentially toxic fumes (e.g., nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, metal, and ozone) and ultraviolet (UV) Avoid using these lights or ensure appropriate ventilation for this activity and wear welder’s goggles.
  • Wear appropriate gloves and
  • Store solvents in proper
  • Practice fire prevention (e.g., store combustibles away from heat, install sprinklers, obtain a fire extinguisher, ).

 

Collagraphs (prints made by gluing a collage of materials to a rigid support):

  • Glues, fixatives, and other materials are used to make
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Glues may contain solvents that may be toxic if inhaled and Avoid glues with solvents (see Solvents); use water-based glues.

 

  • Spray fixatives used to seal collagraph plates may also contain solvents which may be hazardous when If possible, brush on fixatives.
  • Dust generated from sanding collagraph plates may irritate the lungs if Use a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respirator when sanding.
  • Wear appropriate gloves and ensure appropriate ventilation for this
  • When spraying fixatives, use a spray booth that exhausts to the outside or spray

 

Plastic prints:

  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Avoid inhalation of plastic resin vapors and decomposition fumes when working with plastic.
  • Avoid solvent-based inks and other Use water- based products.
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this activity or use a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respirator with organic vapor

Presses:

  • Keep hands and loose clothing out of the way to prevent

 

Sculpture

 

  • Plaster or plaster of paris contains calcium sulfate which occurs naturally as Other substances may be added: 1) to hasten (e.g., salt or potassium alum) or delay (e.g., borax, diluted acetic acid, or burnt lime) setting of the plaster; and 2) to provide texture (e.g., silica sand, vermiculite, coarse stone).
  • Polymer clays consist of fine particles of polyvinyl chloride suspended in plasticizers.
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Plaster (calcium sulfate) dust may be irritating to the skin, eyes, mucous membranes, and respiratory
  • Casting body parts may cause thermal burns from the heat released during Alternatively, use white petrolatum (e.g., petroleum jelly) to protect the skin then apply plaster-impregnated bandages.
  • Potassium alum may cause skin irritation or allergic
  • Concentrated solutions of acetic acid (100%) are corrosive and may be highly toxic if ingested, inhaled, or absorbed by the
  • Borax and lime may be toxic if ingested, inhaled, or absorbed by the
  • Silica sand and vermiculite dust may be toxic if
  • When working with plaster, use an appropriate dust mask, vacuum, and wet Avoid sweeping. Protect hands with gloves.
  • When modeling or carving stone or plaster, carve away from the body and wear goggles to protect the eyes from flying chips of the sculpture material.
  • Benzine (petroleum ether), a component of mold releases, is flammable and may be toxic if ingested, inhaled, or absorbed by the
  • Methods for finishing plaster include painting (with paint, powdered pigments, or the addition of dyes to the plaster), preparing patinas with shellac/acrylic sprays or mixtures containing water, glue, lacquer, alcohol, or bronzing
  • Lacquers contain solvents that may be flammable and toxic if inhaled (see Solvents).
  • To avoid inhalation of powdered pigments/dyes and solvents when spraying, use an appropriate dust mask, gloves, goggles, spray booth, and a Ensure appropriate ventilation and keep solvents away from flame. Alternatively, brush or dip plaster instead of spraying.
  • Practice fire prevention (e.g., store combustibles away from heat, install sprinklers, obtain a fire extinguisher, ).

 

Solvents

 

Solvents may be a component of art materials (e.g., inks, varnishes, paints, glues, etc.) and may also be used for cleaning paint brushes, tools, and other equipment in the studio or workplace. Chemical classes of solvents include: alcohols, ketones, hydrocarbons (e.g., aromatic, chlorinated, and aliphatic), and glycol ethers. Depending on the solvent, toxicity may result from inhalation, ingestion, aspiration, and/or dermal contact/absorption. Also, the toxic effects may vary depending on whether the exposure is acute (short term) or chronic (long term).

 

While there are some general toxic effects associated with many solvents (i.e., central nervous system (CNS) effects such as depression, dizziness, and confusion), other effects may be more specific to a particular solvent (e.g., benzene is a known human carcinogen). Additionally, some solvents are flammable and may present a fire hazard. Practice fire prevention (e.g., store combustibles away from heat, install sprinklers, obtain a fire extinguisher, etc.).

 

The following is a list of some solvents found in art and craft supplies. This list is not exhaustive.

 

Acetone is highly flammable. Potential health effects include respiratory irritation, central nervous system depression, respiratory depression, hyperglycemia, and ketonemia.  Two to three milliliters (~ ½ teaspoon) per kilogram may be considered a toxic oral dose in children (Poisindex, 2004).

 

Alcohol (ethanol) is highly flammable. Potential health effects include: upper respiratory tract irritation, CNS depression, hypoglycemia, and acidosis. Three grams/kilogram is a lethal oral dose in children (Poisindex, 2004).

 

Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon that is a known human carcinogen (IARC, Group 1). It is highly flammable and potential health effects include CNS effects (e.g., confusion, fatigue, dizziness), aplastic anemia, and liver toxicity. Ten milliliters (two teaspoons) is the estimated lethal oral dose (Poisindex, 2004).

 

Carbon Tetrachloride is a chlorinated hydrocarbon that may be highly toxic by inhalation, ingestion, and dermal exposure. Systemic toxicity may occur after a dermal exposure (Poisindex, 2004). Potential health effects include liver and kidney damage, gastrointestinal effects (e.g., burning pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, etc.), CNS effects (e.g., dizziness, confusion, seizures, coma, etc.), cardiovascular effects, and pulmonary edema. Also, it is possibly carcinogenic to humans (IARC, Group 2B). Ingestion of 3 to 5 milliliters (~ 3/5 to 1 teaspoonful) has resulted in death (Poisindex, 2004). Avoid using products with carbon tetrachloride.

 

Citrus oil (limonene) is highly flammable. Potential health effects include skin irritation, skin sensitization, dizziness, hematuria and albuminuria after large oral doses, and pneumonitis if aspirated.

 

Gasoline is highly flammable and toxic and may also contain additives that are toxic (e.g., benzene). It is also an aspiration hazard, which may lead to chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary edema. Inhalation of vapors may cause a number of effects including dizziness, headaches, and nausea.

 

Glycol ethers have been shown to produce teratogenic and reproductive effects in animals. Potential health effects include hematologic effects (e.g., anemia),  kidney  toxicity, and CNS depressant effects.

 

Hexane is highly flammable. Potential health effects include: CNS depression, neurological damage, chemical pneumonitis or pulmonary edema if aspirated, and skin/eye/mucous membrane irritation.

 

Kerosene is highly flammable and an aspiration hazard, which may lead to chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary edema.

 

Methanol is highly flammable and may cause effects such as delayed metabolic acidosis, blindness, and death.  Ingestion of

0.25 milliliters/kilogram of 100% methanol may produce serious toxicity and 0.5 milliliters/kilogram may be lethal (Poisindex, 2004).

 

Mineral spirits are highly flammable and an aspiration hazard which may lead to chemical pneumonitis and/or pulmonary edema.

 

Toluene is highly flammable. Potential health effects include reproductive toxicity, neurologic, liver, and kidney damage, and drying/defatting of the skin. Acute inhalation may cause ataxia, giddiness, hypoxia, cardiac dysrhythmia, and transient euphoria followed by CNS depression.

Turpentine is highly flammable and an aspiration hazard which may lead to chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary edema. Other potential health effects include CNS depression, dizziness, headaches, diarrhea, vomiting, and seizures.

 

Xylene is highly flammable. Potential health effects include respiratory/skin/eye/mucous membrane irritation, renal impairment, defatting dermatitis, and CNS depression.

 

Textiles

 

Fibers

 

Animal fibers (includes angora, camel hair, horsehair, wool, others):

  • A risk of anthrax exists from wool or hair from diseased Use prewashed and disinfected fibers.
  • Fibers contaminated with molds, spores, may cause allergic reactions or possibly disease.

 

Vegetable fibers (cotton, flax, hemp, jute, sisal, others):

  • Chronic exposure may lead to lung disease, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema which may be caused by fungus, mildew, dyes, fiber treatments,
  • Flax is toxic if inhaled.

 

Synthetic  fibers  (acetate,  acrylics,  nylon,  polyester,  rayon, triacetate, others):

  • Inhalation of dusts may cause respiratory
  • Avoid formaldehyde-treated fibers.

 

Precautions when working with fibers:

  • Store in a clean, dry
  • Avoid Ensure appropriate ventilation, and use a dust mask, a vacuum, and a wet mop.
  • Buy washed and disinfected fibers when possible.
  • Eye strain and joint pain are commonly experienced with sewing and needlework Take regular breaks and avoid prolonged repetition by varying techniques and motions.
  • Consider periodic pulmonary function testing to monitor possible adverse effects on

 

Dyeing:

  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Classes of dyes include acid, azoic, basic, direct, disperse, fiber reactive, mordant, and vat.
  • Acids (e.g., glacial acetic and sulfuric) and bases (e.g., lye) used in some classes of dyeing are corrosive and may cause burns.
  • Some dyes may be allergens or carcinogenic [e.g., benzidine, a component of direct or azo dyes, is carcinogenic to humans (IARC, Group 1)].
  • Use caution when handling When possible, use premixed dyes. Otherwise, mix powders in a glove box (a sealed transparent container with built-in gloves used to manipulate materials), hood, or use a respirator.

 

  • Follow the necessary precautions when using pigments containing lead.
  • Some vat dyes must be oxidized with dichromate salts to produce Dichromate salts are corrosive and may be toxic after an exposure. Hexavalent chromium compounds are human carcinogens (IARC, Group 1). If possible, oxidize with heat and air instead.
  • Batik dyeing involves using heated wax and possibly solvents (see Solvents) for wax Be aware of potential fire hazards and the emission of irritating vapors from heating the wax. Ensure appropriate ventilation for this activity.
  • Discharge dyeing involves removing colors from fabric with bleach or other Household bleach (5%) may be irritating to the eyes, skin, mucous membranes, and respiratory tract. Do not heat bleach solutions or add ammonia or acid to bleach.
  • Use a canopy hood over a dye bath.
  • Wear appropriate gloves, goggles, respirator, and protective clothing when dyeing.
  • To avoid skin/eye exposures, be careful not to splash when tie
  • Avoid Use a HEPA vacuum or a wet mop to clean.

 

Waxes

 

  • Various waxes are used for sculpting, casting, making candles, including beeswax, carnauba, tallow, synthetic chlorinated, and paraffin.  Wax  additives include rosin, dyes, and solvents. Also, solvents used to dissolve wax include alcohol, acetone, and turpentine.
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Avoid using synthetic chlorinated
  • Be aware of the potential hazards associated with solvents (see Solvents). Choose the safest solvent and use the least amount necessary for the Avoid carbon tetrachloride.
  • Wax becomes a potential hazard when it is overheated and releases vapors (e.g., acrolein, wax fumes, and formaldehyde) which may cause lung irritation and other respiratory Also, overheated wax may explode near an open flame or from a spark. Avoid overheating wax. Do not use an open flame to melt wax.
  • Use appropriate protection and ensure appropriate ventilation when working with wax and solvents.

 

Woodworking

 

Includes framing, sculpting, furniture-making, etc., using various types of hard and soft woods, exotic woods, plywood, composition board, etc.

 

Hardwoods and Softwoods:

  • Wood dust contains a variety of substances including cellulose, lignin, fatty acids, sterols, alcohols, terpenes, tannins, and
  • Become familiar with the potential toxic effects associated with a particular wood
  • Inhalation of wood dust may irritate the lungs and cause other respiratory effects.
  • Occupational exposures (e.g., furniture and cabinet- making) to some hardwood dusts have been associated with cancer of the nasal cavities and sinuses (IARC, Group 1).
  • Numerous hardwood dusts (particularly from exotic woods) are sensitizers which may cause allergic reactions such as dermatitis, hay fever, conjunctivitis, and When possible use common woods rather than exotic woods.
  • Constituents of some hardwoods may cause a number of effects including headaches, nausea, cardiac symptoms,
  • Avoid inhaling wood dust by using a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved toxic dust respirator or ensure appropriate
  • Use gloves or barrier cream to protect

 

Plywood  and  composition  boards  (contain  glues/adhesives with urea-formaldehyde or phenol-formaldehyde):

  • Formaldehyde may be toxic by ingestion, inhalation, or skin/eye Potential health effects include respiratory, eye, and skin irritation/burning depending on the concentration, allergic reactions (e.g., dermatitis), nausea, vomiting, seizures, and CNS depression. Also, formaldehyde is probably carcinogenic to humans (IARC, Group 2A).
  • Decomposition from working with (e.g., sanding, machining, ) plywood/composition boards may release vapors such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, formaldehyde, and phenol.
  • If possible, use wood products with a low formaldehyde
  • Store wood in a well-ventilated
  • Exhaust dust to the outdoors.

 

Wood preservatives:

  • Preservatives and pesticides are sometimes applied to wood under pressure to protect it from dry rot, termites, Such chemicals are potentially toxic.
  • Be aware of the chemicals in the wood you Read the product label. When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).
  • Look for the most current information on any potentially hazardous
  • To avoid inhalation or skin/eye exposures, do  not machine (e.g., sand, saw, drill, ) or burn preserved wood that contains potentially toxic chemicals.

 

Gluing wood:

  • Glues used for wood include epoxies, contact adhesives, cyanoacrylates, and formaldehyde-resin.
  • Read the product When possible, choose the safest materials available (e.g., those with few or no cautionary/warning labels).

 

  • Some contact adhesives and other glues (some epoxies) contain solvents (e.g., n-hexane) that may be toxic if inhaled and are also flammable (see Solvents). Avoid glues with solvents; use water-based glues.
  • Cyanoacrylate found in instant glue may cause adhesion of skin and/or mucous membranes (e.g., eyelids, ).
  • Formaldehyde may be toxic by ingestion, inhalation, or skin/eye Potential health effects include respiratory, eye, and skin irritation/burning depending on the concentration, allergic reactions (e.g., dermatitis), nausea, vomiting, seizures, and CNS depression. Also, formaldehyde is probably carcinogenic to humans (IARC, Group 2A).
  • Avoid formaldehyde-resin glues.
  • Wear appropriate Use gloves, barrier cream, goggles, and a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved toxic dust mask.
  • Ensure appropriate ventilation for this
  • Avoid smoking, open flames, or other ignition sources when using glues containing flammable

 

 

References

 

ACMI (1998). Guidelines for the

Safe Use of Ceramic Art Materials. Hanson, MA.

 

ACMI (2006). What You Need to Know About the Safety of Art and Craft Materials. Hanson, MA.  http://www.acminet.org/Safety.htm

  1. Cralley, & W. C. Cooper (Eds). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 9-32.

 

 

Ellenhorn’s Medical Toxicology (1997), Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. Second Edition. Williams and Wilkins.

 

Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) (2004). (http://www.toxnet.nlm.nih.gov).

 

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) monographs (2004). (http://www.iarc.fr).

 

McCann, M. (1992). Artist Beware. New York: Lyons & Burford Publishers.

 

National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory (2004).  http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npptl/default.html

 

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (2003). Personal Protective Equipment, publication 3151-12R. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor.  http://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3151.pdf

 

Poisindex (2004), Micromedex, Inc.

 

Rossol, M. (2001). The Artist’s Complete Health and Safety Guide. New York: Allworth Press.

 

Thompson, F. M. & Thompson, P. G. (1990). Arts and crafts. In Health and Safety Beyond the Workplace. (L. T. Cralley, L.

 

Glossary

Acute exposure – a short term exposure (usually less than 24 hours) to a substance or chemical.

Albuminuria – the presence of albumin (a protein that can be dissolved in water) in the urine.

Anemia – a condition characterized by a reduction in red blood cells and hemoglobin.

Aplastic anemia – anemia caused by a lack of cell production in the bone marrow.

Asbestosis – formation of fibrous tissue in the lungs as a result of prolonged inhalation of asbestos dust.

Ataxia – loss of muscle coordination.

Benign pneumoconiosis – any lung disease caused by dust inhalation, particularly mineral dusts.

Bronchitis – inflammation of the mucous membrane of the airways.

Carcinogen/Carcinogenic – any agent or substance which causes cancer.

Cardiac dysrhythmia – disordered heart rhythm.

Chemical pneumonitis – lung inflammation produced by aspiration of certain chemicals (e.g., petroleum distillates, lacquer thinner, etc.).

Chronic exposure – a long term exposure (usually greater than 3 months) to a substance or chemical.

Contact dermatitis – a condition caused by direct injury to the skin via the irritant effect of a substance or by sensitization (see definition of sensitizer below) to a substance that contacts the skin.

Corrosive – a substance capable of destroying tissue on contact.

Defatting dermatitis – an inflammatory skin condition caused by the removal of natural skin oils.

Emphysema – a condition of the lung characterized by distension, progressive loss of elasticity, and eventual rupture of the alveoli (the smallest components of the lungs where air is exchanged with the blood) and accompanied by labored breathing, a husky cough, and frequently by impairment of heart action.

Feather picker’s disease – a condition characterized by fever, chills, nausea, coughing, and headaches.

Fibrosis – formation of fibrous tissue as a reaction to a substance.

Hematologic – related to the blood or blood-forming tissues.

Hematuria – blood in the urine. Hyperglycemia – elevated blood sugar. Hypoglycemia – decreased blood sugar.

29

Hypoxia – a deficiency of oxygen reaching body tissues.

IARC categories on carcinogenic risks to humans –

Group 1: The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans. Group 2A: The agent (mixture) is probably carcinogenic to humans.

Group 2B: The agent (mixture) is possibly carcinogenic to humans.

Group 3: The agent (mixture) is not classifiable as to carcinogenicity in humans.

Group 4: The agent (mixture) is probably not carcinogenic to humans.

Ketonemia – a condition characterized by an abnormal elevation of ketone bodies (a product of the bodies metabolism) in the circulating blood.

Metabolic acidosis – acidosis (reduced alkalinity of the blood) caused by excess acid from abnormal metabolism, excessive acid intake, renal retention, or from excessive loss of bicarbonate (as in diarrhea).

Metal fume fever – an acute allergic condition caused primarily by the inhalation of zinc oxide or magnesium oxide fumes.

Mutagen – an agent that promotes a genetic mutation.

Pneumonitis – inflammation of the lungs.

Pulmonary edema – an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs.

Resin – a man-made polymer made from the chemical reaction of two or more substances, usually with heat or a catalyst, or an organic substance formed in plant secretions.

Rosin – a solid form of resin.

Sensitizer – a substance that upon subsequent exposure will cause an allergic response in a susceptible individual.

Silicosis – a condition caused by prolonged inhalation of silica dusts, which is characterized by massive fibrosis of the lungs leading to shortness of breath.

Systemic – affecting the entire body.

Synergistic – an interaction of substances such that the total effect is greater than the sum of the individual effects.

Teratogenic – causing birth defects.

Toxicity – of, relating to, or caused by a poison or toxin.

Volatile – evaporates readily at room temperature.

 

References

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, www.merriam-webster.com, 2004.

Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary.

 

Index

A

Acrylic resins………………………………………………………………… 20

Acrylics…………………………………………………………………………. 17

Airbrushing…………………………………………………………………… 17

Alkyds…………………………………………………………………………… 17

Amino & phenolic resins………………………………………………. 20

Antiquing………………………………………………………………………. 14

B

Bones…………………………………………………………………………….. 15

C

Caseins………………………………………………………………………….. 17

Cementing……………………………………………………………………… 14

Chalk…………………………………………………………………………….. 12

Charcoal………………………………………………………………………… 12

Clay………………………………………………………………………………. 11

Collagraphs…………………………………………………………………… 24

D

Disposal …………………………………………………………………….3, 8

Drawing…………………………………………………………………………. 12

Drawing materials…………………………………………………………. 22

Drypoint………………………………………………………………………… 24

Dyes………………………………………………………………………………. 22

E

Encaustics……………………………………………………………………… 18

Engraving……………………………………………………………….23, 24

Epoxy paints…………………………………………………………………. 18

Epoxy resins………………………………………………………………….. 21

F

Feathers…………………………………………………………………………. 15

Fibers…………………………………………………………………………….. 26

Animal fibers…………………………………………………………….. 26

Dyeing………………………………………………………………………. 26

Synthetic fibers…………………………………………………………. 26

Vegetable fibers………………………………………………………… 26

Film developer………………………………………………………………. 19

Finished plastic……………………………………………………………… 22

Fire safety……………………………………………………………………….. 7

First aid…………………………………………………………………………. 10

Eye exposure…………………………………………………………….. 10

Inhalation…………………………………………………………………. 10

Skin exposure……………………………………………………………. 10

Swallowed…………………………………………………………………. 10

Fixer……………………………………………………………………………… 20

Fresco……………………………………………………………………………. 18

G

Glass

Decorating glass……………………………………………………….. 14

Stained glass……………………………………………………………… 14

Glass ……………………………………………………………………..13, 14

Glazes…………………………………………………………………………… 11

Glossary………………………………………………………………………… 29

Gluing wood………………………………………………………………….. 27

Gouache………………………………………………………………………… 18

H

Hardwoods……………………………………………………………………. 27

I

Inks ………………………………………………………………………. 13, 22

Intaglio……………………………………………………………………………. 23

Intensifiers…………………………………………………………………….. 20

J

Joystick…………………………………………………………………………… 12

K

Keyboard………………………………………………………………………. 12

Kick wheels…………………………………………………………………… 12

Kilns……………………………………………………………………………… 12

L

Lacquers ……………………………………………………………….. 18, 25

Latex paints…………………………………………………………………… 18

Leather………………………………………………………………………….. 14

Lithography…………………………………………………………………… 22

M

Marbling………………………………………………………………………… 19

Markers…………………………………………………………………………. 13

Metal plate processing…………………………………………………… 22

Metals

Anodizing…………………………………………………………………… 15

Forging……………………………………………………………………… 15

Foundry…………………………………………………………………….. 15

Gilding………………………………………………………………………… 16

Grinding and polishing……………………………………………… 16

Melting/pouring………………………………………………………… 16

Niello…………………………………………………………………………. 16

Patina………………………………………………………………………… 16

Pickling……………………………………………………………………… 16

Soldering…………………………………………………………………… 16

Welding……………………………………………………………………….. 16

Mezzotint………………………………………………………………………. 24

Monitors………………………………………………………………………… 12

Mouse …………………………………………………………………………… 12

N

Natural rubber……………………………………………………………….. 21

O

Oils………………………………………………………………………………… 18

Organic peroxides…………………………………………………………. 21

P

Paint stripping……………………………………………………………….. 19

Painting……………………………………………………………………. 17–19

Papermaking………………………………………………………………….. 19

Pastels……………………………………………………………………………. 13

Pencils…………………………………………………………………………… 13

Pens……………………………………………………………………………….. 13

Photoetching………………………………………………………………….. 24

 

Photolithography…………………………………………………………… 23

Pigments……………………………………………………………………….. 22

Plastic……………………………………………………………………………. 20

Plastic prints………………………………………………………………….. 25

Polyester resins……………………………………………………………… 21

Polyurethane resins……………………………………………………….. 21

Presses…………………………………………………………………………… 25

Protective equipment

Clothing and accessories……………………………………………. 9

Eye protection…………………………………………………………….. 8

Gloves…………………………………………………………………………. 9

Hearing protection……………………………………………………… 9

Respirators………………………………………………………………….. 8

Pug mills……………………………………………………………………….. 12

R

Raku firing…………………………………………………………………….. 12

Reducers ………………………………………………………………..20, 22

References…………………………………………………………………….. 28

Relief printing……………………………………………………………….. 24

Repetitive strain injury………………………………………………….. 12

S

Sculpture……………………………………………………………………….. 25

Shells…………………………………………………………………………….. 15

Silicones……………………………………………………………………….. 21

Softwoods……………………………………………………………………… 27

Solvents

Acetone……………………………………………………………………… 25

Benzene…………………………………………………………………….. 26

Carbon tetrachloride………………………………………………… 26

Citrus oil…………………………………………………………………… 26

Ethanol……………………………………………………………………… 25

 

Gasoline……………………………………………………………………. 26

Glycol ethers…………………………………………………………….. 26

Hexane………………………………………………………………………. 26

Kerosene……………………………………………………………………. 26

Methanol…………………………………………………………………… 26

Mineral spirits…………………………………………………………… 26

Toluene……………………………………………………………………… 26

Turpentine…………………………………………………………………. 26

Xylene……………………………………………………………………….. 26

Spray fixatives………………………………………………………………. 13

Spray painting……………………………………………………………….. 17

Stone cleaning……………………………………………………………….. 23

Stop bath……………………………………………………………………….. 19

Styrofoam……………………………………………………………………… 22

T

Textiles…………………………………………………………………………. 26

Throwing wheels……………………………………………………………. 12

Toners……………………………………………………………………………. 20

V

Varnishes………………………………………………………………………. 18

Vehicles/modifiers………………………………………………………… 22

W

Warning slogans……………………………………………………………… 9

Water-based paints……………………………………………………….. 18

Watercolors…………………………………………………………………… 18

Waxes…………………………………………………………………………… 27

Wood preservatives………………………………………………………. 27

Woodworking……………………………………………………………….. 27

Workstation ergonomics……………………………………………….. 12

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Project: Gold-leaf Floral Azalia (Part 2)


I have been working on the background of my piece to create a more interesting project. I added glitter to some of the background flowers and I added some squares to the area to move the eye of the viewer to that area. I want to create perspective and focal interest by creating a background that has glitter, etc. I utilized more gold, brass, copper and green to try to make the area more visually pleasing without having any dark lines that will create more interest but make the composition harder to visualize. I don’t wan the entire background to take away from the flowers in front. I am also adding images of the other two pieces that I am still trying to finish the background to begin creating the flowers in front. I am using transfer paper that is white to transfer the images of the Azalea flowers that I am adding to the paintings. I am going to go and paint the images in acrylics after this because acrylics are compatible with the gold background. To note that two of the paintings are gold leaf and the larger one is gold acrylics (not gold leaf).

See images below:

IMG_7276Fig. 1. Image of a gold acrylic painting with glitter flowers background. Notice the lines were created with Dark Umber watercolor pencils and then ran gold, brass, copper and light green to create lines that are not as dark.

IMG_7274Fig. 2. Image of the background  gold-leaf paper with some designs which I plan to add some more glitter.

 

IMG_7265.JPGFigure 3. Small gold-leaf background of third painting. This painting has various geometrical background shapes that create visual interest. This is also going to get acrylic azaleas after tracing with white transfer paper. Note the glitter on the top of the triangular structure (yellow area).

I will continue to post more progress of my creative process in terms of this Gold-leaf Floral Azalia project as I move forward. I plan to conclude this project before the end of the week (Week of March 2, 2018).

Learning Fluid Acrylic Pour techniques


by Rossana Kelton, Artist
Date: November 28, 2017

I have been learning to pour fluid acrylics into canvas and other mediums. I have been learning and experimenting with different techniques. I want to learn as much as I can about all the different techniques by watching YouTube videos. I have compiled a list of essential techniques for Fluid Acrylic Pouring. I also have to emphasize that some of these techniques vary with the consistency of the fluid acrylic color and the pouring media. There are various recipes which can be utilized to create the best consistency for the colors utilized in fluid acrylic pouring. The pouring medium recipes also vary. Some individuals utilize plain Floetrol as the pouring medium or some of the prepared pouring medium. The following is an initial list of fluid acrylic pouring techniques including the four essential techniques and other techniques which derived from those four.
Four essential techniques:
1. Puddle Pour technique
2. Dirty Pour technique
3. Flip Cup technique
4. Swipe Separation technique

Important techniques derived from those four essential techniques:

1. Swipe technique
2. Dip technique
3. Flip and Drag with negative space
4. Forked puddle pour
5. Sip and swirl technique
6. Stretched swirl technique
7. Flip Cup technique
8. Negative space technique
9. Spiral pour technique
10. Dirty Pour technique
11. Spiral Pour technique
12. Quad Pour technique
13. Torch or heat gun to pop bubbles technique
14. Dip and Drag technique
15. Dirty Swirl Pour technique
16. Looping Pour technique
17. Pour and use of straw to move paint technique
18. Dirty Swirl technique
19. Swiping after Dirty Flip cup pour technique
20. Hammer or mallet technique (hit canvas with hammer or mallet after pouring small puddles of paint)

Note: Some of the colors have silicone and some do not, some pour from a high or low distance from the cup and some are transparent or opaque. All this affects the fluid acrylic pour techniques.

Neptune Fury

Abstract Painting “NEPTUNE FURY” Fluid Art Modern Fine Acrylic ORIGINAL 9 X 12

IMG_6808

Cave passage

blue3

Blue Dream – SOLD

IMG_6861

Acrylic pouring method


I am currently working on the new acrylic pouring method. I will post more artwork as I learn the technique. I am learning from various individuals including those on Youtube. I will post more about it as I continue trying to determine the application of this technique. I see abstract paintings and backgrounds. I also see the application of acrylic pouring to flower painting. I think you can use the acrylic media to create flower paintings. I will post more on this acrylic pouring project. I am also using other materials to pour acrylics on including applying this to Plexiglass if possible.

Learning to initiate my first Instagram Marketing Campaign:


As part of a new effort to learn to improve my use of Instagram, I have been researching social media to learn to use the platforms to promote my business. I have been reading about utilizing Instagram to develop an active marketing platform which I can use to sell my artwork. In order to do this, I have been reading about beginning an Instagram Marketing Campaign. First, set up an individual business account in Instagram. The idea is to stand out, get insights and find new customers. In Instagram lingo, this means that I have to differentiate my business, analyze the market and gain new brand partnerships.

  1. First I began by determining my goal. The initial step to setting up an Instagram marketing campaign is to determine your initial goal. It is also useful to determine that your goal has to meet some sort of numerical value. For example, I want to sell 100 pieces of my artwork. That is my main goal. First I want to sell my art on Instagram. Second I want to set up a numerical value of 100 pieces of artwork. The reason I picked this value is elementary. I have been working on a “Catalogue Raisonne” or artistic catalogue of my artwork and I discovered that I have only 100 pieces that I have created by working on a temporary basis. Hence I selected the value of 100 in my goal.
  2. Second, I have to work on researching my audience. The idea is to determine my “target Instagram market”. To do this, I have to learn to use the “Suggested Feature” in Instagram. The “Suggested Feature” is an algorithm that Instagram has that you can use to find out your competitors and your future partners. You can go to your website and find the link to the “Suggested Feature” area. You will see your competitors and partners. As future partners, you can work together with other businesses to set up sales and other incentives that are beneficial to both businesses.
  3. Third, you have to find the right Instagram influencers. You can go to some sites, such as Snapfluence or Repost, to locate individuals with accounts that have a lot of Instagram followers. These individuals can be famous or well known or just very popular in Instagram. The idea is to form alliances with these individuals to promote your Instagram sites. You can become an Instagram influencer if you have the following:
    1. Rich Content in your posts is one of the most important things to have in Instagram. The better the content, the more likes your site will have and the more exposure and ranking.
    2. The quality of your posts and your comments on other sites is more important than quantity of responses. Quality is king in Instagram.
    3. You should try to “Tell your story” in Instagram. Making your site open to your struggles and how your arrived at the place you are at now, can make your content more engaging to other Instagram individuals.
    4. Determine if your posts will be something that you, as a customer, would like. If you do not like your posts, then other customers might not like them either. It is all about appearance and visual attraction. What makes you interested in something enough to provide your like to that product? This is what your post has to have to attract customers to your site. You have to be the “hot” site.
  4. Plan your marketing campaign. Every campaign needs a plan. Organize and reorganize your plan.  The plan has to include the length of your campaign, how many posts you are going to post and if your content is original to you or content generated by the user. To manage your project, create a GNATT chart with all the marketing milestones and deliverables. This includes adding all the stakeholders and their deadlines.
  5. Invest in brainstorming a new and creative Brand hashtag. A brand hashtag can be linked to your brand or not. It could include activities that others do that include your brand and publish images of individuals using your brand.
  6. You can create an Instagram User Generated Content campaign in which you run an Instagram ongoing contest in which users contribute something and in return they receive a reward. This is called a UGC campaign.
  7. To implement your Instagram marketing plan, determine the method of implementation. Implementation could be UGC or Instagram Influencer marketing campaign. An Instagram Influencer marketing campaign depends on whether you can convince or pay an Instagram Influencer to promote your Instagram Brand for a price or reward. This can be expensive but worthwhile if you get the right individual to promote your brand.

My idea is to try to implement my first Instagram Marketing Campaign with the goal of promoting my brand and getting sales. I want to differentiate my brand from the competition by analyzing the market and gaining new brand partnerships. If you like the article, come and “Like” my Instagram hashtag: “#rossanakelton”.

My struggles as an artist learning the basics.


I am going to be open with my struggles. I have been trying to sell my art for the last twenty years and I have been successful sometimes and at other times, I have struggle. It is not that I don’t believe in my artwork, it is that I want to sell all my artwork and move on to different types of artwork and media. I decided that if I want to improve the quality of my artwork, I have to improve my technique. To improve my technique, I decided to study art basics. I have been studying drawing and painting by going online and taking small courses. I have also learned from my daughter, who is in art school. I cannot afford, currently, to attend art school but I can use some of the material she is getting from her basic coursed to improve my technique. I guess one of us has to work to support the struggling younger artist. Hence, I have been learning from videos, YouTube, different academic art textbooks and various online courses. I have to admit that I have been learning a lot of the latest techniques from YouTube. I know that this is not your typical academic approach, but it helps to understand and learn from my and other’s mistakes. I am currently at a point in which I am continually reviewing the basic techniques and learning new approaches to basic techniques. I will continue to post my basic and new artistic techniques.

Rossana “Rossi” Kelton,

Struggling Artist

Innovative Marketing: Augmented reality business cards


 

I wrote about this yesterday in LinkedIn but I am going to write about this on my blog because I think this story is huge. I am going to bring some portions of my previous post on LinkedIn:

Augmented reality is an innovative technique to market your goods and services through business cards that do more than look good. Augmented reality lets the reader indirectly or directly views elements of the physical environment augmented by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. This means that your current perception of reality is enhanced by computers. The application of this technique to business can be limitless. For example, I was searching for new and innovative business cards for my art business because I have described myself as an artist of innovation. Therefore, my art and my business model have to have the look of creative innovation as well as the use of the latest technology. I discovered that I can create a business card and then freely add visual enhancements that are not limited by the space of the small business card of 2 x 3 inches, for example. I can add a QR code that with an iPhone, my customer can see the latest coupons or deals. I also discovered that I could enhance my business card by adding a video of my process or images of my portfolio. The idea of adding items to the business card that can be seen through an iPhone makes my brand more innovative and less forgettable than the regular rectangular business cards. I can also add other things such as sound, or GPS data to the location of my gallery. The idea is to be creative and to move in a visual expression that is beyond the limitations of the physical small business card. I want my customers to experience a game, for example, or a song if you are in the music industry. The possibilities of using this technique are endless. Let just say that the idea of adding something like that to one of my paintings and making the whole artistic experience more fun and innovative are a great temptation. I want everyone to walk through a gallery and view my art and point their I Phones to take a picture, and find new surprises.  The strategy is to create your own business card and to add the augmented reality to it with apps. I plan to try to add the computer-enhancements using an app that was on YouTube.  The app is called Geozet. I plan to try it and see if my business card experience can be enhanced with augmented reality.

To view my art follow my LinkedIn site Rossana Kelton, Artist of Innovation.

Facebook: facebook.com/rossana.kelton,    Store: rossanakeltonartist.myshopify.com,

Twitter: twitter.com/RossanaKelton

 

 

 

 

 

Art critics are often frustrated artists grinding their axes on new artists seeking approval from them. Do you agree?


I am opening this question for others to provide feedback. Do I agree? No. We need art critics to provide a feedback of our work. Criticism provides engagement and discourse. Art has a role in society. The art critic provides value to the artwork. Critics make fine distinctions among like artworks. A devaluation of criticism forces the value of the artwork to be based solely on the local market. Artists need critics to create value for the artwork. This helps the artist to expand to other national or international markets. Criticism is a form of communication; feedback helps make artwork products stronger, it forces the artist to think how he or she works, the right kind of criticism can create an advantage, using positive language elicits a solution without taking it personally.

Michel Foucault’s ethos of practicing criticism:

“A critique is not a matter of saying that things are not right as they are. It is a matter of pointing out on what kinds of assumptions, what kinds of familiar, unchallenged, unconsidered modes of thought the practices that we accept rest…Criticism is a matter of flushing out that thought and trying to change it: to show that things are not as self-evident as one believed, to see what is accepted as self-evident will no longer be accepted as such. Practicing criticism is a matter of making facile gestures difficult.”

 

Sources:

Campbell, David. “The importance of criticism” https://www.david campbell.org/2012/05/15/importance-of-criticism/, 15 May, 2012.

Simek, Peter, “Why is Art Criticism, And Why do We need It?”, https://www.dmagazine.com/arts-entertainment/2013/05/what-is-art-criticism-and-why-do-we-need-it/, Arts and Entertainment, May 7, 2013.

What do Art Critics do? Why do we need them?


I found this post online at:

https://www.uwgb.edu/malloyk/art_criticism_and_formal_analysi.htm

ART CRITICISM

Defining Art Criticism

 

· Art criticism is responding to, interpreting meaning, and making critical judgments about specific works of art.

· Art critics help viewers perceive, interpret, and judge artworks.

· Critics tend to focus more on modern and contemporary art from cultures close to their own.

· Art historians tend to study works made in cultures that are more distant in time and space.

· When initially introduced to art criticism, many people associate negative connotations with the word “criticism.”

A professional art critic may be

· a newspaper reporter assigned to the art beat,

· a scholar writing for professional journals or texts, or

· an artist writing about other artists.

Journalistic criticism

· Written for the general public, includes reviews of art exhibitions in galleries and museums.

· (Suggestions that journalistic criticism deals with art mainly to the extent that it is newsworthy.)

Scholarly art criticism

· Written for a more specialized art audience and appears in art journals.

· Scholar-critics may be college and university professors or museum curators, often with particular knowledge about a style, period, medium, or artist.

FORMAL ANALYSIS

 

-Four levels of formal analysis, which you can use to explain a work of art:

1. Description = pure description of the object without value judgments,

analysis, or interpretation.

· It answers the question, “What do you see?”

· The various elements that constitute a description include:

a. Form of art whether architecture, sculpture, painting or one of the minor arts

b. Medium of work whether clay, stone, steel, paint, etc., and technique (tools used)

c. Size and scale of work (relationship to person and/or frame and/or context)

d. Elements or general shapes (architectural structural system) within the composition, including building of post-lintel construction or painting with several figures lined up in a row; identification of objects

e. Description of axis whether vertical, diagonal, horizontal, etc.

f. Description of line, including contour as soft, planar, jagged, etc.

g. Description of how line describes shape and space (volume); distinguish between lines of objects and lines of composition, e.g., thick, thin, variable, irregular, intermittent, indistinct, etc.

h. Relationships between shapes, e.g., large and small, overlapping, etc.

i. Description of color and color scheme = palette

j. Texture of surface or other comments about execution of work

k. Context of object: original location and date

2. Analysis = determining what the features suggest and deciding why the artist used such features to convey specific ideas.

· It answers the question, “How did the artist do it?”

· The various elements that constitute analysis include:

a. Determination of subject matter through naming iconographic elements, e.g., historical event, allegory, mythology, etc.

b. Selection of most distinctive features or characteristics whether line, shape, color, texture, etc.

c. Analysis of the principles of design or composition, e.g., stable,

repetitious, rhythmic, unified, symmetrical, harmonious, geometric, varied, chaotic, horizontal or vertically oriented, etc.

d. Discussion of how elements or structural system contribute to appearance of image or function

e. Analysis of use of light and role of color, e.g., contrasty, shadowy,

illogical, warm, cool, symbolic, etc.

f. Treatment of space and landscape, both real and illusionary (including use of perspective), e.g., compact, deep, shallow, naturalistic, random

g. Portrayal of movement and how it is achieved

h. Effect of particular medium(s) used

i. Your perceptions of balance, proportion and scale (relationships of each part of the composition to the whole and to each other part) and your emotional

j. Reaction to object or monument

3. Interpretation = establishing the broader context for this type of art.

· It answers the question, “Why did the artist create it and what does it mean

· The various elements that constitute interpretation include:

a. Main idea, overall meaning of the work.

b. Interpretive Statement: Can I express what I think the artwork is about in one sentence?

c. Evidence: What evidence inside or outside the artwork supports my interpretation?

4. Judgment: Judging a piece of work means giving it rank in relation to other works and of course considering a very important aspect of the visual arts; its originality.

· Is it a good artwork?

· Criteria: What criteria do I think are most appropriate for judging the artwork?

· Evidence: What evidence inside or outside the artwork relates to each criterion?

· Judgment: Based on the criteria and evidence, what is my judgment about the quality of the artwork?

 

Barrett’s Principles of Interpretation

1. Artworks have “aboutness” and demand interpretation.

2. Interpretations are persuasive arguments.

3. Some interpretations are better than others.

4. Good interpretations of art tell more about the artwork than they tell about the critic.

5. Feelings are guides to interpretations.

6. There can be different, competing, and contradictory interpretations of the same artwork.

7. Interpretations are often based on a worldview.

8. Interpretations are not so much absolutely right, but more or less reasonable, convincing, enlightening, and informative.

9. Interpretations can be judged by coherence, correspondence, and inclusiveness.

10. An artwork is not necessarily about what the artist wanted it to be about.

11. A critic ought not to be the spokesperson for the artist.

12. Interpretations ought to present the work in its best rather than its weakest light.

13. The objects of interpretation are artworks, not artists.

14. All art is in part about the world in which it emerged.

15. All art is in part about other art.

16. No single interpretation is exhaustive of the meaning of an artwork.

17. The meanings of an artwork may be different from its significance to the viewer. Interpretation is ultimately a communal endeavor, and the community is ultimately self- corrective.

18. Good interpretations invite us to see for ourselves and to continue on our own.

Barrett, Terry. (1994) Criticizing Art: Understanding the Contemporary. Mountain View, California: Mayfield Publishing Company.